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Furnish by sheet materials and a tree

The Technology of furnish of surfaces sheet materials and a tree is much easier, than with application of so-called wet processes - oshtukaturivanija, colourings, etc., demanding certain skills and experience. Sheet materials (dry plaster plaster, gipsokartonnymi sheets, DSP and DVP, bumazhnosloistym plastic, decorative plywood, etc.) it is possible in short terms and is high-quality to finish premises, a lobby, kitchen etc.

At a choice of materials for furnish of premises it is necessary to consider a functional purpose of a premise and operational properties of a material. For example, in living rooms it is possible to use only dry plaster plaster and gipsokartonnye sheets with their subsequent pasting by paper wall-paper. For furnish of walls and the device of false ceilings in lobbies (at considerable height of a premise) it is possible to choose DSP and DVP, decorative plywood; also the tree well approaches. With damp processes (kitchen, bathing, a bathroom) it is recommended to finish premises with waterproof materials - bumazhnosloistym plastic, DVP with a bumazhno-pitch covering, etc.

The materials Specified above can be used and for furnish of summer domestic subsidiary premises. However thus it is necessary to take into consideration that dry plaster plaster and gipsokartonnye sheets collapse in premises with the raised humidity or badly protected from an atmospheric precipitation; DSP and DVP, and also decorative plywood are jarred on and spoil at a moisture direct hit.

facing of walls

Dry plaster plaster and gipsokartonnye sheets are applied at facing brick, ferro-concrete, shlakobetonnyh, gipsobetonnyh and other walls. Distinguish two principal views of fastening of sheets to a surface of walls: gluing mastics and it is direct to a wall screws or nails on a wooden skeleton,

Fastening of sheets by means of gluing mastics is carried out or on basic beacons and marks, or under a rule. In house uslovijahrekomenduetsja to apply the first way providing higher quality of the finished surface. Facing on basic beacons and marks provides preparation and proveshivanie surfaces, a marking of installation sites of sheets, preparation of mastic for basic beacons and marks, open also preparation of sheets, preparation of gluing mastics, gluing of sheets.

By preparation a surface clear of a dust, a dirt and a solution, and then moisten with water by means of a brush, Proveshivajut a surface according to the recommendations resulted in section 3.1. For the device majachnyh marks use a waste of dry plaster or gypsum cardboard in the sizes 80X80 mm which paste to a wall on mastic. Marks regulate, using a plaster solution enclosed under marks or the same marks in two layers on mastic. The established marks serve as a support at gluing of sheets that guarantees their vertical position. Basic beacons have vertical rows with distance between them an order of 600 mm on three-four marks among. Thus the top establish at ceiling level, and bottom - at floor level. Vertical rows of marks should coincide with a line of a joint of two adjacent sheets which is defined in the course of preliminary breakdown of a premise. According to breakdown it is made open sheets.

At raskroe sheet stack on a table which length is equal to length of sheet, and by means of a long ruler and sharply ground knife cut it from a face sheet on depth not less than half of thickness of sheet. Sheet break on a cut, and a cardboard from an underside cut.

Basic beacons can be prepared in advance. For this installation site of sheets mark simultaneously with surface breakdown, then proveshivajut a surface a plumb. In one of premise corners put gipsokleevuju mastic a continuous vertical strip the in width of 80 mm. On mastic put a strip of dry plaster or gypsum cardboard in width 6... 8 sm to which strictly vertical position on a plumb is given. In the same way krepjat a strip in other corner of a wall. Then into the top and bottom parts of corners hammer in nails on which on a diagonal and a horizontal pull cords. On them establish intermediate basic beacons from continuous strips with step of 600 or 1200 mm. Between basic beacons on a wall surface put intermediate measures which will interfere with a deflection of an internal part of sheets.

For gluing of sheets on beacons and marks put gluing structure. Between beacons and marks in the form of flat cakes in chessboard order throw plaster mastic. Flat cakes should be above level of basic beacons imarok. On beacons establish sheet, driving its rule into the corner before contact with marks. For the period tverdenija mastics (40... 50 mines) are necessary for fixing sheet rasporkami. For this purpose it is possible to make a wooden frame from reek in the sizes corresponding to the sizes of sheet, and to hold apart it by means of one or two bruskov, established and fixed at an angle to a frame and to a floor.

Furnish of walls gipsokartonnymi sheets under a rule: and - sheet installation on a plaster solution; - pressing of sheet by a rule and check of vertical position by a plumb At installation gipsokartonnyh sheets under a rule control and majachnym is the first facing sheet which should be especially carefully established and verified in horizontal and vertical planes (see drawing). Under an edge of the first sheet turned towards following sheet, put a wide strip mastic so that it acted from an edge on 45... 50 mm. On this layer of mastic paste edge of the second sheet which establish for preliminary put marks in the form of flat cakes and strips. Sheet press so that it was in one plane with the first. Correctness of installation check a rule. At facing on the wooden skeleton, carried out by means of screws and nails, following operations are made: Marking of premises; installation of stoppers; installation and fastening of a wooden skeleton on beacons; preparation, razrezka, installation and fastening of sheets.

The premise Intended under facing is necessary for marking preliminary to define demanded quantity of sheets, their sizes on width and length, the sizes dobornyh sheets, an installation site of a skeleton and stoppers or djubelej for its fastening. A skeleton for fastening of sheets produce from bruskov 15X50 mm which beat to stoppers along walls with step on height of a premise 50... 60 Bruski see should be antiseptirovany kremne-fluoric sodium or hlordanom. Stoppers for fastening bruskov establish with step 80... 100 see For installation of stoppers in walls from a brick, a stone or gipsobetona, except ferro-concrete and wooden, a chisel and a hammer beat out a nest in the sizes 35X35 on depth 45... 50 mm. The nest should extend inside that the wooden stopper of the pyramidal or conic form kept in a wall is better. From the beaten out nest delete splinters of a material of a wall and a dust. Then it wash out by means of a rubber pear. The prepared in advance and moistened wooden stopper prepared in advance in water in length 40... 45 and the sizes bolshego 30X30 mm (or diameter 30 mm) enter the bases the wide party into a nest filled with a plaster solution. Surpluses of a plaster solution delete, and an acting part of a stopper cut.

Nests for stopper installation punch shljamburom in diameter 30... 35 mm. It can be made most of the pipe piece which one end do gear by means of a file. In concrete walls of a nest for installation of stoppers drill an electrodrill with pobeditovym a tip and a punch (or a chisel) which should be used alternately.
In nests in a concrete wall of a stopper it is necessary to establish on a cement-sandy solution of structure 1:3. To a wooden skeleton sheets krepjat the zinced nails with wide hats or screws. Nails it is necessary to have on sheet perimetre through 400 mm, receding from an edge on 10... 20 mm, and also on the sheet middle through 600 mm. Joints between sheets, and also to walls close up places of an adjunction of sheets gipsokleevoj shpatlevkoj. If sheets have about reaped edges, seams close up mastic zapodlitso with a surface of sheets and after drying paste over with a paper tape or a gauze on glue KMTS. Then them shpatljujut also grind an emery paper.

At sheets without the pressed out edges before zadelkoj joints on their longitudinal edges it is necessary to cut off a cardboard in width to 6 see On an open surface of plaster put a layer shpatlevki, paste a strip of a gauze and again close shpatlevkoj zapodlitso with a plane of the established sheets. Screws or nails on the middle of sheets also paste over with a paper tape or a gauze and shpatljujut. It is possible to paste over the surface prepared thus with wall-paper or to paint.

In sale arrive also gipsokartonnye sheets with decorative obverse poverhnostjuv the complete set with fixing apportions from aluminium alloys. They are used both for facing of walls, and for the device of a mansard premise. Sheets krepjat by means of aluminium profile apportions to the wooden skeleton established on perimetre of the future premise. A skeleton carry out from racks 50Х50 mm which establish of 600 mm with step and fix nails to top and bottom directing (50X50 mm). Directing in turn, fasten to overlapping and rafters. In apportions provide apertures for screws in diameter 3... 4, length 40... 50 mm.

To fastening of sheets apply the angular apportion fixed by screws. Into an apportion groove insert sheet. On the top directing fix okantovochnuju an apportion. A sheet edge put on an ordinary apportion so that its wide shelf was free, and fix screws to a wooden rack. Then into a groove of an ordinary apportion insert the following sheet etc. Sheets at installation should be drawn in to the top apportion and in the bottom part to beat a nail. After end of works interface to a floor close a plinth.

In need of warming of a mansard premise from the back party of a skeleton fix plywood or gypsum cardboard, and space between sheets fill with a heater. In the absence of apportions sheets fix on distance of 1 sm from an edge nails or screws to racks with step of 250 mm. Joints between sheets shpakljujut plaster mastic also paste over metkalju, a gauze etc. After that a premise surface paint or paste over with wall-paper. Facing DSP is carried out, as a rule, on the wooden skeleton established the same as at facing by dry plaster plaster and gipsokartonnymi by sheets. For facing of premises (for example,) it is better to lobby to use DSP, covered with an interline interval. If such is not present, it is possible to paste over plates with polyvinylchloride films or the paper wall-paper simulating various breeds of wood, and also to fit or paste over with films on a fabric basis.

The Obverse surface of the plates which have been pasted over with paper wall-paper, it is necessary to cover with a nitro-cellulose varnish in some layers, and then oil or pentaftalevym a varnish. Lateral sides DSP are necessary for processing. In the first variant the device of grooves on all lateral sides of plates is provided. Panels krepjat nails or the screws which are hammered or screwed up in one of walls of a groove. Then into a groove insert shponku, and over it pull the following panel which is kept by a groove for shponku. SHponku produce from wooden rejki 30X40 mm or a metal strip. Nails hammer dobojnikom.

the Adaptation for zabivki nails in hard-to-reach spots: 1 - a steel core; 2 - a metal tube; 3 - a nail At the second variant one party of a plate provide with a crest, another - with a groove. The panel with a groove fix in the way described above, and the panel with a crest establish to a skeleton and hammer blows on a panel end face through a lining from a wooden bar get a crest in a groove of the previous panel. The party with a crest fix to a skeleton a nail and establish the following panel.

By the third variant of processing on lateral sides of plates choose only quarters. Plates krepjat on a wooden skeleton nails, and after facing end in a groove formed on joints, insert the wooden apportions fixed on glue or on screws. For drilling of apertures for screws, and also for an apportion fixed by nails in hard-to-reach spots, it is possible to take advantage of the simple adaptation consisting of a steel core and a metal tube (drawing see).

DSP it is possible krepit to a wooden skeleton and without manufacturing of grooves and crests. It is especially important at facing by plates with furnish by films on a fabric basis (viniliskozhej, an imitation leather). Such plates fasten to a skeleton by means of the plywood overlays attached to the back party of the panel on screws, and are mounted closely or widened rustom which is filled with wooden apportions (see drawing).

Facing of walls DSP on a wooden skeleton with application of overlays: 1 - a wall; 2 - a bar 20Х50 mm; 3-DSP 2700Х600Х19 the mm, pasted over with a film; 4 - a fixing lath Facing bumazhnosloistym plastic, DVP and decorative plywood is made on glues or on nails and screws on a wooden skeleton. Bumazhnosloistyj plastic to vertical surfaces of the plastered, plaster and concrete walls can be glued mastics КН-2, КН-3. For facing plastic sheets it is necessary raskroit nozhovkoj on the sizes defined as a result of a marking of walls. Edges should be processed a plane. One days prior to gluing an underside of sheets ground the mastic put gear shpatelem with height of teeths 1 mm. For 20... 30 mines to a label the back party of the sheets cleared of a dust, again coat with a thin layer of mastic and maintain to a condition when mastic poorly sticks to a finger at a contact to the missed the mark surface.

Plastic Sheets paste on carefully marked surface. The first sheet glue from a corner according to the vertical line put by means of a plumb. Sheet bring to a wall, put to it and grind in from the middle to edges rags. In the same order krepjat other sheets between which it is necessary to leave a backlash in width 10... 20 mm taking into account possible expansion of sheets at temperature fluctuation. Seams cover with wooden apportions on mastic. Apportions should be attached in addition in three places nails or screws to stoppers or djubeljam, established in seams. Such apportions will press also sheets along the edges which fastest lag behind. Stoppers or djubelja can be established before a label of sheets after a marking of a revetted surface.

DVP with a decorative obverse surface paste the same as bumazhnosloistyj plastic, However the choice of gluing mastics in this case is slightly wider. Except mastics КН-2 and КН-3, DVP glue polivinilatsetatnoj emulsiej, mastic "Bustilat", kanifolnoj, kumaronovoj and difenolnoj mastics. Joints also cover with apportions.

Bumazhnosloistyj of plastic arts, DVP and sheets of decorative plywood krepjat also to a wooden skeleton. Unlike a skeleton, arranged kovochnye boards have vertically, the wooden skeleton should be established horizontally. If boards have horizontally skeleton bars follows krepit vertically. A wooden skeleton arrange in the same way, as well as at facing by dry plaster and gipsokartonnymi with sheets.

At the skeleton device it is necessary to take into consideration that in space between facing and a wall there can be a dampness that will lead to facing rotting. For ventilation of internal space between facing and a wall at vertically located skeleton it is necessary to make apertures in places of interface of facing boards with a ceiling and a floor.
At a horizontal arrangement for fastening DSP, bruski it for the specified materials follows krepit vertically so that sheets were joined on bruskah. If sheets short and them have to be joined on height in joining places it is necessary to establish horizontal bars of a skeleton That sheets did not cave in at opiranii on a wall, between skeleton bars it is necessary to lay rejki 15X30 mm which should form a lattice with cells 30X30 see

Sheets krepjat to a skeleton screws. In raskroennyh sheets bumazhnosloistogo a plasticity it is necessary to drill preliminary apertures in diameter on 0,5... 1,0 mm more than diameter of screws. Seams between sheets of all kinds cover with wooden apportions on screws and varnish.

Facing by a tree, depending on a wall material, is carried out or on a wooden skeleton, or is direct to a wall or stoppers. On equal wooden walls, for example karkasno-obshivnye or board, and also on wooden partitions, facing boards beat directly to a wall. Thus the arrangement of boards can be both vertical, and horizontal. From horizontal logs it is necessary to revet walls with vertically located boards.

Walls from a brick and a stone revet on preliminary established wooden skeleton from bars 1 5... 25X50 mm. In places where there is a danger otsyrevanija wood, bruski a skeleton 3% th water solution of fluoric sodium (or 3% th water solution fluoric and kremneftoristogo sodium) in the ratio 3:1 parts on volume are necessary antiseptirovat, for example. At manufacturing of antiseptic tanks in hot water (90... 95 °s) consistently enter components, mixing thus a mix. The industry the Siberian salmon ks "lets out also oil antiseptics of"Ligno"ready to application and".

Facing on a skeleton if necessary allows to carry out a thermal protection of walls. For this purpose at the skeleton device it is necessary to apply bruski 60X60 mm with distance between them of 500 mm. Between bruskami stack semifixed mineralovatnye plates in the sizes 500Х1000Х60 mm which then cover with facing boards. If it is necessary to equip a garret under workshops or for other purposes, plates stack between rafters, and facing boards fix directly to rafters or to additional bruskam, fixed to them. Thus it is necessary to give special attention to water resistance of a roof, and also to provide in designs ventilating apertures.

Facing by boards is carried out or end-to-end, i.e. neoshpuntovannymi boards, or with the device in them of grooves and crests. In the first case fastening is carried out by nails or the screws which hats are visible on an obverse surface of furnish. That furnish was beautiful, nails or screws place on preliminary lined by means of a ruler and a plumb to lines, strictly observing the chosen step between them. For fastening in this case is better to use the chromeplated screws with a semicircular head.

At other way of fastening apply nails with removed kusachkami hats from which boards on a surface there are small dents. Them then shpatljujut and accurately paint over under colour of wood. Facing from shpuntovannyh the boards having a groove and a crest, can be carried out so that nails were not visible on a surface of boards.

A Surface finished with wood, usually cover with a transparent varnish - oil, a nitrovarnish, etc. For giving bolshej decorative effects to boards from coniferous breeds preliminary process them a blowtorch which flame should have uniform lilac colouring as at roasting by yellow fire the surface becomes covered by soot. A lamp hold so that the flame concerned a surface of boards. Moving it with identical speed, to a floor give homogeneous and contrast drawing of wood. At board roasting it is necessary to put horizontally on an equal surface and to beat to a skeleton in the same order in what they burnt.

Facing of ceilings

Fastening gipsokartonnyh sheets to a ceiling with application of T-shaped support At facing of ceilings by dry plaster plaster or gipsokartonnymi sheets on plaster beacons and marks work is carried out in the same sequence, as facing of walls. However during fastening sheets are necessary for pressing two T-shaped support, having them on distance of a quarter of length of sheet from its end faces (drawing see). The rack of the T-shaped support should be on 20... 30 mm are more than premise height that will allow to press densely sheets to a ceiling.

ceiling Filing gipsokartonnymi sheets: and - fastening of sheets to a wooden skeleton; - fastening of sheets to overlapping beams; 1 - an overlapping beam; 2 - gipsokartonnyj sheet; 3 - nails; 4 - a wooden skeleton; 5 - mineralovatnaja a plate At the device of overlappings on wooden beams with nakatom sheets krepjat to a wooden skeleton or it is direct to beams (drawing 26 see). zapodlitso it is possible to revet such overlappings, attaching sheets directly to a ceiling without a skeleton. At the device of their longitudinal joints it is recommended to have along falling rays of light.

DSP and DVP at a ceiling covering also krepjat or to a wooden skeleton, or it is direct to overlapping beams. Thus it is necessary to take into consideration that DVP can sag eventually, therefore for their fastening it is necessary to provide a skeleton with bruskami, located as across, and on a vertical.

On the area in apartments with high ceilings, for example lobbies, it is possible to make Small premises more cosy by means of a decorative covering of wood. For this purpose on premise perimetre to in advance established stoppers krepjat a bar 30x50 mm, in which with step 200... 250 mm are cut grooves in width 20 and depth about 10 mm. In grooves in vertical position establish cut off on the ends for width of a bar of a board in the length equal to width of a lobby, height 150 and thickness of 19 mm.

In other variant of a decorative ceiling of a board in width of 400 mm have horizontally with step of 200 mm and krepjat to a wall nails or screws with secret heads to bruskam in the width equal to width of boards. Over boards light sources which, being reflected from a ceiling by absent-minded radiation have shine a lobby. That light sources were not looked through in intervals between boards, they can be made with boards in height about 80 mm.

In addition on a theme "Works With яю=юыъюь":

ceiling Registration
Tension or a false ceiling

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