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Facing by tiles

Internal facing

Facing ceramic glazurovannymi is carried out by tiles on a cement-sandy solution and on gluing mastics. In that and in other case the surfaces intended under facing, it is necessary to prepare carefully. Brick and stone plaster a structure cement mortal 1:4 with the subsequent natsarapyvaniem the grooves providing reliable coupling with facing. On concrete surfaces after clearing of a dirt, a dust and traces of a solution of a groove notch a hammer and a chisel. Wooden and gipsokartonnye the surfaces intended under furnish, plaster with application of a metal grid with cells 30X30 mm a structure solution 1:3 (1:4). The metal grid is necessary for isolating from a wooden surface roofing material layers. The plastered surfaces covered with an oil paint, clear of it in the ways described in section 3. 3. After that a surface notch. The ceramic tiles got for facing, can differ on colour, have defects, and also differ in the sizes, therefore before the beginning of their works it is necessary to sort. First of all it is necessary to select tiles without defects. Tiles with defects can be used for manufacturing of halves, quarters, etc. The unequal sizes will not allow to receive equal identical seams, therefore for well looked through places of a revetted surface it is necessary to select tiles of one size, using for this purpose a template. As a template can serve krestovina from two wooden bruskov on which divisions of the sizes of tiles, or a framework-cell in the sizes corresponding to standard dimensions of tiles are put.

The Surface intended under facing by tiles, proveshivaetsja also is marked. It is necessary for amateur master to check up carefully vertical position of a surface and corners by means of a plumb according to recommendations. Taking into account a thickness of a layer krepjashchego a solution, equal 7... 15 mm, in corners of a revetted surface, hardly above the top border of facing, drive in nails and at level of their hats pull a cord. In the sequence described earlier, are established majachnye nails in all basic points. Then by means of a tile and a ruler mark the future facing, count up quantity of the whole tiles among, possible halves, etc.

If facing is conducted in premises, in which else there are no floors in this case it is necessary to plan a line of a wearing floor on a wall and on it to establish and well to fix rejki which will support the first row of tiles. If floors are available, the first row stack directly on them.

At height of the first row of tiles pull a horizontal cord - prichalku which ends adhere to nails or to perestavnym to the probes hammered into a wall. Tense the cord-prichalka serves in a plos-bone of facing as a reference point for packing of the first majachnogo a number. To stack it it is necessary from the wall middle to edges, precisely observing breakdown of seams and their thickness. If the floor plane is not horizontal that it is easy to check up level first row tiles at packing should be cut off so that their upper edges have formed a direct horizontal line.

According to a plane majachnogo a number and the cords fixed at proveshivanii, establish majachnye tiles on corners of a revetted surface in the beginning and in the end of the top number of facing, and also in the beginning and in the end of the second bottom number. The special attention should be turned on that majachnye tiles have been established strictly on the cords pulled between nails.

After installation majachnyh tiles on second row top again pull a cord-prichalku on which second row tiles will keep within. Before the work beginning it is necessary to moisten the surface prepared under facing with water by means of a brush-maklovitsy. In the course of facing also it is necessary to humidify a ceramic tile with the brush moistened in water, okunaniem in capacity with water or carrying out by the back party on a solution in a box.

It is necessary to give Special attention to plasticity of a solution which depends on the water cement relation and quantity of sand. Plasticity can be checked up as follows. On an underside of the tile cleared of a dust put a few solution, and then sharp movement downwards dump it from a tile. Presence on it of the rests of the stuck solution testifies to its suitability for facing works. Too rigid solution will be late on a tile almost completely. In this case in it it is necessary to add a few waters. If the solution is not late on a surface, add cement and sand.

Facing by ceramic tiles of surfaces of walls Packing of tiles on a solution is made as follows. Taking in the left hand preliminary moistened tile, right by means of a shovel-tiler type a solution and impose it on the back party of a tile a uniform layer. The thickness of a layer should provide full filling of space between a wall and a tile without emptiness. Then a tile with a solution bring to a place of its packing, fast movement overturn in vertical position and press to a revetted surface. Definitive landing of a tile is made by easy blows of the wooden handle of a shovel (drawing see). It should accept position at which its obverse surface will be in level with the previous tile and to correspond to level of a horizontal cord.

At landing of a tile surpluses of the solution which has acted from seams, it is necessary to remove a shovel. In the course of facing a surface periodically verify rejkoj or a rule, watching that between rejkoj and a wall plane there were no backlashes. For performance of a demanded seam between tiles stack the linings made from wooden reek in the thickness of 3 mm.

Razrezka glazurovannyh ceramic tiles: and - a cut glazurovannogo a layer; - perelamyvanie tiles In need of installation of halves and quarters of tiles steklografom put on a tile the demanded size. Then steklorezom under a ruler do a cut glazurovannogo a layer, break about a table edge or an edge wooden rejki, preliminary having knocked along a cut line (from a tile underside) with the handle stekloreza or a hammer (drawing 21). Narrow strips break off nippers. Small oval cuts in a tile, appearing at facing round pipes, etc., delete kusachkami or nippers. If the pipe appears in the tile center, it cut half-and-half and do oval apertures in both halves. Then halves put so that the seam has not been swept up.

Described above operation can be carried out by means of the special tool which is let out by the industry - kafelerezki. Keen edges of tiles after cutting smooth out a grinding stone or a rasp. Seams between tiles fill (after shvatyvanija a solution under a tile - through 2... 3 days) a solution with the raised maintenance of cement. Depending on colour of a tile it is possible to apply white or colour cement, white cement with addition shchelochestojkih pigments - ohry, minium, soot. It is possible to use also gipsomelovuju the mastic consisting of 1 part (on weight) plaster, 1 part of a chalk and a quantity of animal glue. Sometimes mastic prepare from 4 parts of a chalk and 1 part of drying oil. Seams fill rubber shpatelem, and then rub clean rags or a mitten.

The Described way of facing by ceramic tiles is called a seam in a seam. It is the most widespread way of furnish of premises in apartment. In certain cases it is possible to apply facing by tiles to subsidiary premises vrazbezhku. At this way simulating a stone laying, tiles of overlying layers displace concerning tiles of underlaying layers half. To carry out facing in such a way it is much easier, as in this case it is necessary to watch only horizontal position of stacked tiles.

Sometimes for achievement of special decorative effect facing carry out on a diagonal. In this case tiles stack at an angle 45 ° to a horizontal line of a floor. Facing is better for making the separate sites limited horizontal and vertical frizovymi to numbers.

Facing on a diagonal is carried out similarly to facing a seam in a seam. In the same way proveshivajutsja walls also are established beacons. Then keep within frizovye, limiting a site, numbers. The length frizovyh numbers should be such that on their inside the integer of triangular halves of the tile in advance cut in the way, described above kept within. At packing of ordinary tiles the cord-prichalka stretches at an angle 45 ° to frizovym to numbers according to halves.

Facing ceramic glazurovannymi on mastics is carried out by tiles, as a rule, on earlier plastered surfaces. But they can be pasted and on other surfaces - concrete, asbestotsementnye, drevesnostruzhechnye, etc., under one condition: the surface for gluing should be equal, providing dense prileganie to it of tiles.

If the surface intended under facing, is processed by oil or other not water paints, tiles paste, without removing a painting layer. A glutinous paint, and also paints of other water structures necessarily remove. A surface on which paste a tile, also it is necessary to ground the diluted glutinous structure. Smooth surfaces before a first coat should be processed an emery paper or slightly to notch a chisel.

As gluing structures use the mastics which are let out by the industry ("Bustilat", "Butilaks"), glue on the basis of PVA, epoksidnyj glue, etc. In the instructions applied on these materials, it is specified, as well as under what conditions they are used.
Practice shows that good gluing qualities characterise structures on the basis of PVA with cement addition (one part of cement on volume on 5... 6 parts PVA), "Butilaks" with cement or chalk addition, mastic "Stiro-2M". Introduction napolnitelej in gluing structures (cement, a chalk) allows to increase a thickness of a gluing layer, providing with it dense prileganie the back party of a tile to the basis.

Before the work beginning on facing it is necessary to mark places of packing of tiles on a surface of walls. Thus horizontal lines are necessary for marking by means of level, and vertical - by means of a plumb. If the premise corner is not vertical, one side of tiles touching a corner, it is necessary to cut.

Technological operations on facing by tiles on mastics carry out in the same sequence, as at facing on solutions. On the prepared surface and the back party of a tile gear shpatelem put mastic a layer which thickness is equal 1,5... 5,0 mm depending on quality of the prepared surface. Then a tile densely press to a surface according to beacons, cords and earlier laid tiles. Surpluses of mastic remove a shovel, and the soiled places wipe rags. After shvatyvanija seams fill mastics with a cement-sandy solution or the structures resulted earlier.

Facing by glass tiles is carried out on the same technology, as ceramic. However at work with them it is necessary to consider some features. So, for maintenance of more reliable coupling of a solution or mastic with tiles their back party is recommended to be processed an emery paper to give them the big roughness. It is possible to cover also an underside of tiles with liquid glass, and then prisypat dry coarse-grained sand. At facing on a cement mortal glass tiles, unlike ceramic, drive into the corner and level without pristukivanija the shovel handle. At cutting of tiles of a place are sharp it is recommended to moisten with turpentine or kerosene.

Facing polistirolnymi tiles has a number of features. The temperature indoors where works are conducted, should be not more low 15... 18 °s. Before gluing of tiles the prepared surfaces it is necessary progruntovat a thin layer of mastic of the same structure which will be applied to facing. Mastic on a surface is better to put gear shpatelem with a teeth in height of 1 mm. A tile paste at once after a first coat. That mastic did not dry up, it is necessary to put it sites the area in 5... 6 tiles. At gluing a tile densely press to the basis, thus its side should adjoin directly to a priming coat. Accuracy of the sizes polistirolnyh tiles allows to conduct facing without seams. To cut them it is possible nozhovkoj with small teeths, and edges to grind an emery paper.

External facing

For facing of the walls executed from a brick, a stone, shlakoblokov and other piece materials, the obverse brick and ceramic stones with shchelevidnymi emptiness, ceramic and glass tiles, concrete plates, and also plates from a natural stone can be applied. At facing by an obverse brick bandaging of obverse and basic layings of walls is usually carried out on mnogorjadnoj to system - continuous tychkovymi by numbers.

Facade Facing by ceramic tiles is made upon termination of a laying of walls vpustoshovku. If the laying is executed with a full seam, preliminary notch or clear away seams on depth 10... 12 mm. Before facing the wall surface is necessary for clearing of flows of a solution and other pollution, then to establish beacons. Proveshivanie surfaces and installation of beacons it is carried out in the sequence described for internal facing by tiles. Distinction consists that beacons have on the sites limited to elements of a facade of the house (window and doorways, a window sill, an eaves) so that facing seams coincided with vertical and horizontal elements of partitioning.

Tiles stack numbers from below upwards on a cement-sandy solution of structure 1:4. A solution put kelmoj on a tile piramidkoj. Then a tile drive into the corner with prostukivaniem, levelling on majachnoj or the previous tile.
For reception of equal and identical seams use wedges or rejki, equal to a thickness of a seam. After hardening of a solution wedges take out also seams fill with a solution. Before solution drawing it is necessary to moisten a surface of a wall and a tile. In case of facing by ceramic tiles of walls at which erection the silicate brick was used, the surface is necessary for fitting the metal grid fixed in seams of a laying, with the subsequent drawing of a layer of a solution of structure 1:3.

At facing of walls by the kovrovo-mosaic tiles pasted on a paper in carpets, first of all it is necessary to put an equal layer of a cement-sandy solution structure 1:3 in the thickness 4. „5 mm. Then a rug press to the basis in a layer svezheulozhennogo a solution. For the second day after shvatyvanija a solution a paper moisten with water and remove from tiles. Seams between tiles are filled with a solution.

Facing by concrete plates carry out simultaneously with erection of walls of buildings from various kinds of a brick, ceramic stones, blocks, etc. Concrete plates krepjat to a wall on flexible communications, and at level of their socle opirajut on the strong basis from concrete or a brick. On each plate should be provided not less than two loops to which krepjat anchors from korrozionnostojkoj became in diameter 4... 6 mm put in horizontal seams of a laying. A vertical backlash between a plane of a wall and facing in the course of erection of walls fill with a solution.

Facing by a natural stone can be carried out on ready walls or in the course of their erection. For this purpose use limestone, a volcanic tufa, travertin, dolomite. At facing of ready walls facing plates krepjat or only on a solution, or on a solution with application of anchors. The choice of a way of fastening depends on the sizes and breed of facing stones. As a rule, on a solution without additional fastening by anchors revet travertinom and other similar breeds having a large open time. The size of plates should not exceed 400X200 (under condition of packing at width), a thickness - 10 mm.

At facing on a solution with application of anchors in the beginning establish on a cord the first row dry. Between a wall and the established plates place wooden wedges, verifying each plate on level and a plumb. In a wall shljamburom punch nests and establish stoppers in which put anchors of the G-shaped form from a steel wire in diameter 5... 6 mm. The free bent ends anchors insert into in advance drilled nests of the top sides of plates. Lateral sides of plates fasten the probes inserted also in in advance drilled nests. After that a backlash between a wall and the established number of plates fill in with a solution. As a rule, a solution fill in, without reaching the top edge of plates on 10... 30 mm. In the same sequence establish the following number of plates. For more reliable coupling of plates with a solution on their back party do notches.

At facing of walls in the course of laying erection it is necessary to prepare a set of elements of fastening preliminary: U-shaped loops-releases in diameter 8, working armature in diameter 10... 12, hooks for fastening of elements of facing to working armature in diameter 4... 6 mm, and also probes and skoby for connection of elements of facing among themselves. Facing plates krepjat to the working armature established in loops-releases and attached to them by a wire or welding, special skobami.

Repair of facing by tiles

The Basic damages of the internal revetted surface - loss and rastreskivanie tiles under the influence of a moisture, temperature fluctuations or mechanical damages. If ceramic glazurovannaja the tile or the whole site of facing exfoliates from a wall together with a solution in this case a chisel or a hammer it is necessary to clear away a place where there was a tile, to clear it of a dust, to moisten with water and on a cement-sandy solution of structure 1:3 to lay a new tile.

To removal of tiles apply the small well ground chisel. The tile should be broken away, beginning from the middle, gradually moving to edges. If it revets thin partitions it is necessary to be very cautious at removal of tiles as from concussion at blows by a hammer the next tiles can disappear. If the tile has disappeared from a solution and remained intact, it can be pasted polivinilatsetatnoj emulsiej or mastics "Bustilat", "Stiro-2M", etc. At gluing the relief of an underside of a tile should coincide with printed on a solution. In the same way eliminate damages on the surfaces revetted metlahskimi, glass or polistirolnymi tiles.

In the walls revetted ceramic glazurovannymi or glass tiles, apertures for installation of the stoppers intended for fastening by screws of shelves, mirrors, etc., bore through in seams. Drill an electric or manual drill with a drill having pobeditovyj a tip. Such tool it is possible to drill apertures and in the tile attached to a wall by a cement-sandy solution. For this purpose in a place where the aperture is planned, a punch edge the notch that the drill did not slide on glazurovan th surface of a tile becomes. In the course of work the drill is necessary for cooling periodically water. In the received aperture in diameter 5... 6 and depth 25... 30 mm insert plastic djubel or a wooden stopper. At drilling of apertures in glass tiles under a drill it is recommended to drop some a few turpentine or kerosene.

If while in service external facing of the house by ceramic plates or a natural stone has become soiled, it can be cleared, washing out water, solutions of acids or alkalis, soap solutions or pastelike washing substances. For example, facing glazurovannymi ceramic tiles 10% th solution of soda, etc. are recommended to wash out warm 2% th ra-alignment of soap. At clearing of the facade revetted neglazurovannymi with ceramic tiles, preliminary remove disappeared layer karborundovym around, fixed on an electrodrill, and then wash out water, applying brushes or brushes.

If on a facade revetted with ceramic tiles or plates from a natural stone, the destroyed or lagged behind tiles are found out, it is necessary to remove and replace them new on a cement basis. The destroyed places can be restored a layer of a cement-sandy solution. At replacement of tiles with a plaster solution by the big sites it is necessary to put a plaster layer on the metal grid fixed to a bricklaying by probes, closed up in a wall in specially drilled apertures. A plaster layer embroider "under facing tiles" and paint under colour of facing.

Exfoliating plates from a natural stone could be fixed to a wall cores from korrozionnostojkoj in diameter 4... 6 mm. Cores insert into apertures which bore through in a plate and in a wall on depth of 150 mm at an angle 45 ° to a surface (on a horizontal line). Diameter of an aperture should be on 2 mm of more diameter of a core. In an aperture washed out by water and filled then a solution, insert a core. An installation site close up a solution prepared from a small stone crumb and cement (tab. 29). In exfoliating (buhtjashchih) plates cores insert with step 100... 150 mm.

In addition on a theme "Facing яыш=ъющ":

Ceramic glazurovannaja a tile (tile)
the Glass tile
Polistirolnaja a tile

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