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Painting works

At building or repair of an individual apartment house furnish by paints occupies, as a rule, an important place in total amount of painting and decorating. Therefore preliminary it is necessary to prepare the necessary tool, and also the materials which choice depends on a furnish kind. At a choice of materials it is necessary to consider that premises (the general rooms, bedrooms, children's rooms, offices) are expedient for painting glutinous paints that will allow to support in them normal air-vlazhnostnyj a mode. Oil, enamel, vodoemulsionnymi and other paints it is possible to paint walls in kitchen, bathing, forward, pantries and other subsidiary premises. It is necessary to apply weatherproof paints to external furnish of the house (silicate, cement, oil), specially intended for external works.

Colouring vnutrenniih surfaces.

The Structure of a spadework depends on a material of a finished surface and a kind of painting structure. By its preparation under colouring by water structures (glutinous, limy, silicate, etc.) provide clearing, smoothing, razrezku and podmazku cracks, a first coat and shpatlevku. The plastered plaster and concrete surfaces of ceilings and walls before colouring by glutinous paints clear, smoothing on them roughnesses. Cracks cut and grease. Then surfaces ogruntovyvajut, smooth again and grind.

At ceiling clearing even if it has been painted earlier, first of all delete old nebel. Small nabel it is possible to wash away hot water by means of a brush and a rag, thick it is necessary to clean off a scraper in a dry kind or preliminary having moistened with hot water by means of a brush. Through 30... 40 mines damp nabel delete a scraper either shpatelem. A scraper or shpatel have at an angle 30... 45 ° to a surface. Slightly pressing the tool, sliding advances remove a layer nabela. In the same way delete splashes of a solution, stratification of a paint and other pollution on again plastered ceilings.

If on a ceiling surface there is a soot or rusty stains from korrozirujushchego metal or a faulty roof, they also need to be removed. The soot is washed off by 3% th solution of hydrochloric acid with the subsequent washing by hot water. Rusty stains delete a solution prepared from calculation 50... 100 g copper kuporosa on 1 l of hot water, or a solution of hydrochloric acid. If any of these ways does not help, stains paint over oil whitewash or a nitropaint of white colour. In cases when stains anything cannot be removed, it is necessary to remove a plaster layer, having established thus the reason of a leak and, hence, stain formation. In such places it is necessary to provide a waterproofing or to deepen plaster namet. The specified operations are carried out and at clearing of surfaces of walls. In this case a scraper or shpatel, at work in an average part of a wall, move from right to left, and in bottom - from top to down. Clearing is made with small pressing a scraper or on shpatel sites the in width 0,6... 0,7 m.

Sequence of performance of operations at razrezke cracks and plaster repair: and - razrezka shpatelem; - an erasure by means of a chisel and a hammer; in - wetting of a surface by water; g - zadelka a small crack a plaster solution; d - drawing of a plaster solution on the insignificant areas of a surface with the help a semigrater; e - zatirka the repaired surface After removal nabela or peretirki, and also after drawing of new plaster on a surface still has grains of sand, small cracks, roughnesses and traces from shpatelja or graters. They smooth out by means of an end face of wood of coniferous breeds, a piece of a silicate brick or pumice. Definitively the surface should be smoothed out a small emery paper. For convenience in work in an emery paper it is necessary to wrap a board or bar piece.

That the cracks which were available on a ceiling or on walls, have not appeared again, they are necessary for cutting at first, and then to cover podmazkoj (drawing see). For this purpose a corner shpatelja or a knife them clear away on depth to 2 mm. SHpatel or a knife move along a crack with an inclination to a ceiling or to a wall at an angle 45 ° - at first on the one hand cracks, and then with another. After rasshivki cracks the surfaces intended for the subsequent operations on furnish, it is necessary to clear of a dust (a grassy brush or a vacuum cleaner).

The Surface before colouring should be grounded, that the painted surface did not absorb a moisture. The first coat forms a film protecting the subsequent finishing layers from losses of the glutinous making. Besides, at colouring without a first coat in places with bolshej porosity of a material of a wall or a ceiling probably increased absorption of a paint that leads to occurrence of stains on the painted surface. A first coat put on a ceiling and walls brushes: on the big surfaces - mahovymi brushes or brushes-maklovitsami, on small - brushes-bench hammers. At ogruntovke a ceiling the brush can be attached to the long handle. Walls ground with podmostej or from a floor. The first coat should be imposed "in shading", t. e, at first perpendicular, then parallel movements in light direction.

Ogruntovku brushes make as follows. A brush dip into capacity with priming structure and wring out about a wall of capacity for removal of surplus of a liquid. To put a first coat it is necessary an equal layer smooth movements, without leaving potekov a first coat and brush traces. To press a brush does not follow - it should concern a surface with the hair end. In the course of work the brush is necessary for turning about the axis that it wore out in regular intervals. Before the beginning ogruntovki walls it is necessary to note borders of glutinous colouring if it is carried out not to the ceiling. For this purpose from a ceiling measure the necessary distance, doing marks in walls on all perimetre of a premise. Horizontal position of the future line is better to check water level, putting the ends of glass tubes to marks. Then to marks put a cord preliminary rubbed with a pigment (for example, ultramarinom). Pulling a cord from both ends, its easy blow mark a line of top of colouring of a premise. Ogruntovku walls it is necessary to begin from this line. A brush put to a wall and smooth movement of a hand in a horizontal direction from left to right make otvodku wall top on the beaten off line.

Ogruntovku can be carried out and the platen. For this purpose it lower in special protiven (or a bucket) with priming structure and prokatyvajut on the metal grid laid over structure. It promotes uniform distribution of structure on the platen and removal of surpluses of a first coat from it. Then the platen put to a surface and vertical movements prokatyvajut from border otvodki (at ogruntovke walls) or horizontal movements (at ogruntovke a ceiling). That the surface has been in regular intervals sated by structure, the platen, at easy pressing the handle, prokatyvajut in the same place of one-two time.

Podmazka of cracks is made by corresponding structure shpatelem. Bowls available on a surface, hollows and the embroidered cracks are thus closed up. SHpatel hold the right hand so that two fingers kept the handle from below, and index and average - pressed it densely from above. SHpatlevku vmazyvajut at an angle 45 ° to a surface with one and on the other hand cracks. After crack filling smooth shpatelem. Podmazannye places after drying grind and podgruntovyvajut.

At performance described above processes use first coats and shpatlevki, prepared in house conditions. First coats under glutinous colouring can be kuporosnymi, kvastsovymi or mylovarnymi. A first coat prepare parts in three various capacities - the enameled buckets, pans, etc. In the first capacity in 2 l of water cook preliminary presoaked tiled animal glue, in the second in 3 l boiling waters dissolve copper kuporos, in the third in 2 l of water - a laundry soap. In the received glutinous solution at its constant stirring pour in soap, and then - drying oil. Into a little cooled down solution of glue with soap and drying oil enter a solution copper kuporosa. After careful hashing the received mix should cool down. Before application in it add a chalk (2... 3 kg) and water before reception of the volume equal of 10 l.

Kvastsovaja a first coat on structure and sequence of preparation does not differ from kuporosnoj except that into a mix instead of copper kuporosa are entered aljuminieao-kalievye alum (150, preliminary dissolved in 3 l of boiling water. For preparation mylovarnoj first coats in 4... 5 l of water presoak glue, in it add the soap cut by small slices and warm up, mixing and without leading up to boiling. After that the received structure dilute with water to the specified volume.

For zadelki small cracks and hollows before a glutinous paint apply podmazki on the basis of plaster and a chalk. Demanded for resulted above structure podmazki a quantity of water define selection as at a different thickness of a layer podmazki its consistence is various. The specified mix hardens during 15... 20 mines, therefore are recommended to prepare it in small quantities. The increase in the maintenance of glue to 10% can prolong term shvatyvanija to 2 ch. For this purpose it is possible to use also lateksnuju shpatlevku. Density shpatlevki can be regulated addition of a small amount of water. Such shpatlevka is issued by the industry and goes on sale under the name "Flora". It contains lateksnyj glue and a chalk. In certain cases after podmazki cracks for reception of a quality surface it is necessary to do continuous shpatlevku, polishing and secondary ogruntovku.

Again plastered surfaces shpatljujut it is obligatory. At continuous shpatlevanii structures are put and levelled shpateljami: the first layer wooden, the subsequent - wooden or metal. shpatlevku it is necessary to put on a ceiling surface an equal layer in the thickness 1,0... 1,5 mm; it smoothes out movements divergently. SHpatel it is necessary to hold at an angle 60 ° to a ceiling surface. SHpatlevku type from capacity narrow shpatelem, and then impose on wide on all width of an edge. Put on a surface an outstretched arm - movement "on itself" along light. On a wall surface shpatlevochnuju weight put vertical movements. At strip packing from top to down shpatel it is necessary to hold so that the truncated party of a cloth on 3... 4 mm were blocked already zashpatlevannuju earlier by a surface at the left, and at movement shpatelja from below upwards - on the right. It allows simultaneously with drawing shpatlevochnoj weights to level the platen which has remained from the previous strip shpatlevki at the right long party of a cloth. Zashpatlevannye surfaces of ceilings and walls after drying grind pumice and an emery paper.

For continuous shpatlevanija surfaces under glutinous paints usually apply the most simple to manufacturing glutinous shpatlevki. Prepare shpatlevku as follows. Into the prepared 10% th solution of glue with soap enter drying oil. In the received liquid basis add other quantity of water. A mix mix before formation emulsii into which a squirt at constant hashing pour the sifted chalk before reception of demanded density. On appearance shpatlevka should remind the friable dough. For reception shpatlevki on vegetative glue prepare 5% th solution of paste from a flour or starch. In it pour in the drying oil mixed with paste before formation emulsii. In received emulsiju add a chalk to demanded density. On 1 kg of a glutinous solution take 30 g drying oils. SHpatlevku it is possible to prepare also on a basis kuporosnoj the first coats which structure is resulted above. For this purpose 1 kg kuporosnoj (or kvastsovoj) first coats mix with 150 g 10% of th glutinous solution. In the received mix at constant hashing add a chalk before reception of demanded density. Synthetic shpatlevku prepare from 1 kg of th glue KMTS of 5%, 0,3... 0,8 kg of 50% of th emulsii PVA, 0,5 kg of a laundry soap and 3 kg of well sifted chalk. The technology of its preparation is similar to technology of preparation of the previous structures. Water solutions of glues and the soaps prepared in advance, mix to the capacity intended for it. Into the received mix in the small portions at constant hashing pour a chalk before reception of demanded density.

Preparation under colouring kazeinovymi is carried out by paints of the plastered and concrete surfaces in the same sequence. For preparation of a first coat glue dissolve in 2,5 l warmed up to 60 °s waters at continuous hashing. Then add drying oil and the presoaked chalk. The received structure well mixed, filter. A kazeinovuju paint dissolve in the water which has been warmed up to 60... 70 °s, filter, adding in it soap, drying oil and turpentine (at continuous hashing). After that enter a chalk for reception of structure of a necessary consistence.

Preparation under limy colouring of the stone, brick, plastered surfaces is carried out in the same sequence, as under the glutinous. The surfaces intended under furnish, clear of stratifications, a dirt and a dust, moisten with water, smooth a wood end face, cut on it cracks and hollows. After that make the first ogruntovku, partial podmazyvanie and polishing podmazannyh places.

For colouring of walls of domestic subsidiary premises from a brick or a tree it is enough to clear their surfaces, to moisten with water and ogruntovat. For ogruntovki it is possible to apply structure on the limy test with salt or mylovar. The limy dough stir in separate capacity in 5 l of water. In other capacity in boiling water dissolve the salt which solution pour in in the limy dough, carefully mix, diluting with water to volume of 10 l. The ready first coat should be filtered through a sieve or a gauze. For preparation mylovara in separate ware in 2... 3 l of boiling water dissolve the soap crushed in the form of thin shavings. In soap water a squirt pour in drying oil which carefully mix before reception emulsii. Emulsiju add in the limy dough, mix and plant with water to volume of 10 l. The received mix also filter. For preparation shpatlevki in the beginning shut in water plaster, stirring before reception smetanoobraznoj consistences. After that enter the limy dough and carefully mix.

Preparation under colouring vodoemulsionnymi is carried out by paints the same as under the glutinous. However for ogruntovki surfaces it is better to use a paint diluted with water in the ratio 1:3:5. To put priming vodo-emulsionnye structures it is better the platen or kraskoraspylitelem.

Surface Preparation under colouring by not water structures-oil, enamel And nitropaints - consists of following operations; clearings, smoothings, proolifki, podmazki cracks, polishing, podmazyvanija places, shpatlevki (if it is necessary) and first coats. Surface clearing is made, as by preparation under glutinous painting. If Old colouring has been executed by glutinous structure, nabel delete. If it was applied Oil paint which thus has no considerable damages and it is good Keeps, for removal of a dirt, a soot, etc. The surface needs to be washed out 2... h% th solution of soda. If the old paint in many places badly keeps, On a surface there are wrinkles and cracks it should be removed soskablivaniem. If the surface is damaged considerably, it needs to be cleared a burning out of the soldering Lamp. For this purpose a torch flame slowly move on a surface of the painting Layer to vspuchivanija, and then it clean off shpatelem. Thus, however, it is necessary to remember, That a burning out delete a paint only from the plastered and stone surfaces.

The Old painting layer can be removed also the special structure prepared from 1 kg of a chalk, 1 kg of the limy test and 20% of th solution kausticheskoj soda which the mix gets divorced swept and to exhaust to a pastelike condition. Paste is put shpatelem on a surface, left on 1... 1,5 ch and together with the lagged behind paint acts in film shpatelem. After that 20% th solution of acetic acid and again water are necessary to wash out surfaces well water, and then.

Smoothing of a surface by an end face wooden bruska, a silicate brick or pumice is made the same as and by preparation for colouring of the plastered and concrete walls. By preparation and colouring of wooden surfaces it is necessary to cut out knots and zasmoly, and then to embroider cracks and cracks. Pitch can be scraped out or cut down a chisel, and the deepenings which have turned out thus to wash out gasoline and zashpatlevat. All nails are necessary for drowning, differently at usyhanii wood they will be visible on the painted surface.

For proolifki again plastered or before the painted surfaces, and also wooden products use drying oil or first coats on its basis which structures are resulted above, Proolifku carry out a brush or the platen on well dried surface. Processing of not dried up surface can lead to swellings of a painting covering, occurrence of bubbles, otslaivaniju paints.

Podmazka of cracks is made by preparation of all surfaces after full prosyhanija proolifki. Technics of work shpatelem same, as by preparation of surfaces for colouring by water structures. Deep cracks should be greased twice. In the same way grease both backlashes between a platband and a wall, a plinth and a wall, etc.
Polishing podmazannyh places is carried out after drying podmazki by an emery paper or pumice then it is necessary to remove a dust in the ways specified above. SHpatljujut a surface the same as by preparation under water paints. After shpatlevki a surface grind. Continuous shpatlevka it is applied at the improved colouring on the plastered surface, concrete and a tree. At high-quality colouring the second is provided continuous shpatlevka with the subsequent polishing.

The First coat is carried out in last turn by the structures resulted above with addition of the pigment corresponding to colour of the future painting covering. Structure put a brush or the platen an equal thin layer. For preparation podmazki in a glutinous solution add drying oil and mix to emulsionnogo conditions, and then - a chalk to pastelike density. SHpatlevki under oil colouring prepare, as a rule, also on the basis of drying oil in the quantity demanded for reception a working consistence. Prepare shpatlevku so. Drying oil mix with sikkativom and in received emulsiju at careful hashing by small portions add a chalk before reception homogeneous smetanoobraznoj weights.

Shpatlevku under oil colouring of the plastered surfaces prepare on the following technology. Animal glue dilute with hot water before reception of 10% of th solution. In a water small amount dissolve a laundry soap which it is necessary to cut preliminary a thin shaving. Having given necessary quantity of those and other solutions, them carefully mix. In received mylnokleevoj structure enter drying oil, solvent and sikkativ at constant stirring of a mix before reception emulsii. As constantly mixing, a squirt enter a chalk before reception of a working consistence. At shpatlevke the damp plaster the structure on the basis of a chalk and cement can be used. In 1 kg of the cretaceous paste received by hashing of one part of water with two parts of a chalk, enter 0,5 kg sikkativa and 0,25 kg of drying oil. After careful hashing in a mix add cement of marks 300... 400 before reception smetanoobraznoj weights. Usually it is required about 1,5 kg of cement.

As a first coat under oil colouring apply structures on the basis of drying oil or drying oil in the pure state with pigment addition to avoid admissions at first coat drawing. The most simple structure for proolifki surfaces is the mix from 1 kg of drying oil and 50... 100 g a dry pigment. Instead of proolifki it is possible to execute a first coat a liquid paint by which the surface will be painted that will give the chance to execute colouring for two times without admissions and gleams. For preparation of such first coat in 1 kg of drying oil pour in 0,8... 1,2 kg gustotertoj an oil paint, carefully mix and filter through a dense sieve. If the structure prepared thus has turned out dense, in it it is possible to add from 100 to 250 g solvent for oil paints.

Colour of painting structure choose taking into account appointment of a premise, its orientation and light exposure and, of course, own taste. Some councils resulted more low, will help with it. For example, walls of the general room which in some cases is vacation spot of all members of a family, can be painted in more sated colours, than walls of other premises. In such room are more often in the days off and in the evening, therefore the bright colours promoting good, high spirits, in this case are pertinent. It is not recommended to paint in such premises a wall in lilac, dark blue, blue, etc. Tone which at evening illumination by lamps of artificial light become grey and inexpressive. It is necessary to mean also that at evening illumination it is difficult to define a difference between white colour and svetlozheltym, violet can seem purple, dark blue - green.

At colouring of walls in offices preference give to the green or brown tones favorably operating on mood of the person. Blue and greenish tone it is necessary to apply at colouring of walls of a bedroom; in children's rooms it is better to use light blue, it is light lilac, pink and t, the item the Same colour scale can be used at furnish of one- and two-room apartments in which, as a rule, the berth is combined with a place for employment. Besides, it is necessary to consider orientation of premises and light exposure. Rooms with windows on the north should be painted in warm colours - golden-yellow, ohristye light-beige, light orange, and rooms with southern orientation - in cold tone which concern blue, greenish-blue, etc. In premises with insufficient natural illumination it is necessary to use light, warm colours - orange-yellow, yellow, green, chartreuse. It will promote the best light exposure of premises.

Not less the great value at a colour choice has the size of a finished premise. A somber colour, such as blue, light green, violet or their shades, visually leaves from us. Therefore the premise painted in specified colours, will seem to more spacious. Yellow, orange or red, on the contrary, visually reduce the sizes of premises. Using these properties of colours, it is possible to improve proportions of premises visually. For example, in very high room the ceiling can be painted one of warm colours, and a wall - a somber colour. It will allow to reduce premise height visually.

Colouring by glutinous and other water structures can be made by a brush, the platen or kraskoraspylitelem. Premise colouring, as well as preparation, it is necessary to begin with a ceiling. Usually a ceiling paint for two times. The first time a paint put mahovoj a brush perpendicularly to light falling from a window, the second - dabs in light direction. If in a window are located on two or three walls it is necessary to put the second layer dabs along length of a premise.

Colouring of walls begins, as a rule, from above after the ceiling will well dry out. At first the strip kolera along border of the colouring designated at a first coat by means of a tense cord, covered ultramarinom is spent by a brush-bench hammer. If walls paint for two times dabs are put horizontally, and then are shaded by vertical dabs. If the ground appears through a painting layer and it is necessary to put it three times the first layer put the vertical dabs, the second - horizontal and last - vertical.

That colouring was homogeneous, the paint in capacity at everyone okunanii in it is necessary for shaking up brushes, and a brush to wring out about capacity edge. At drawing of a paint the brush should be held perpendicularly or at a small angle to a painted surface. Koler on a surface put easy dabs, without pressing strongly a brush to a painted surface, typing it on a brush tip.

To Paint walls it is possible platens with which help the big productivity is reached considerably. Platens happen rubber, porolonovye and fur. After lowering in a paint, the platen it is necessary prokatat on a grid laid on capacity to remove surplus of a paint. Before work with platens in the beginning a brush paint walls in corners, at platbands, plinths, etc. Thus painting structure carefully shade, that was not potekov, splashes or Mohammedan prayers on a floor and platbands. Then colouring by the platen which should be conducted on a wall with small pressing, prokatyvaja it some times in the same place (on a wall - from top to down, then from below upwards) is made. Strips should be imposed one on another on 30... 40 mm. For the purpose of the best shading it is possible prokatyvat the platen both in a vertical direction, and in horizontal, achieving a thin paint layer without flows and the passed places.

For colouring of surfaces of walls and ceilings water or limy paints it is possible to use also a spray which is available in a set of replaceable adaptations of household vacuum cleaners. Usually the spray is mounted on the polyethylene cover intended for glass jars, products used for conservation.

Preliminary filtered through a gauze or a fine sieve the painting structure is filled in in half litre to bank. For use one- or 2-litre jars is necessary to extend a spray tube so that it got to their bottom. The polyethylene cover with a spray is put on on bank and incorporates to a vacuum cleaner hose. To bank fill with a paint on 3/4 its volumes. Before the colouring beginning it is necessary to pick up optimum distance from a painted surface at which the paint lays down on a surface the smallest splashes, without creating a continuous glossy layer.

At considerable distance of a spray from a painted surface of a part of a sprayed paint can not reach a surface and fall on a floor. A spray direct on a ceiling at an angle to a surface and after vacuum cleaner inclusion move along a surface smooth krugoobraznymi movements. It is necessary to watch, that the saturation of a surface a paint was uniform. The main sign of glut - luster occurrence on a painted surface. It is better to make colouring by thin layers for two-three times.

Manual kraskopulty are most effective at colouring of surfaces of walls and ceilings glutinous, limy and kazeinovymi paints. By means of a fishing tackle it is possible to make painting works without podmostej. The distance between an atomizer and a surface is necessary for specifying in an operating time. A fishing tackle in regular intervals move along a painted surface, doing simultaneously circular motions.

For colouring of premises use glutinous paints more often. Apply also kazeinovye, silicate and vodoemulsionnye. Limy structures paint basically basement walls and ceilings, other crude premises, and also domestic constructions.

Glutinous structures (kolery) can be white (for colouring of ceilings) or colour. White koler receive from a chalk dissolved in water. Necessary density of structure define immersing of a stick which should be painted by a continuous layer of a chalk thus. In the received structure add animal glue which prevents melenie a paint layer. To check up, whether it is enough gluing in a paint, it is necessary to paint over a tin or glass slice the received structure and to dry. If gluing there is enough, at a contact to a paint layer on a hand should not remain chalk traces. That surplus of glue in a paint that can lead rastreskivaniju to the painted surface has not turned out, he should be added in the small portions and each time to check melenie in the way specified above.

In order to avoid formation of a yellow shade on the painted surface in glutinous structure usually add a little dark blue kolera - an ultramarine, cobalt dark blue, etc. the Pigment it is necessary to dissolve with water in separate ware and in the small portions to add in koler, checking the received colour trial colouring of a slice of a tin.

For reception of a glutinous solution animal glue dissolve in 1,5... 2,0 kg of water. It is possible to prepare glutinous structure also on glue KMTS. Sequence of preparation the same, as the previous structure.

Color kolery receive on the basis of white in which the necessary pigments are added. At selection of pigments it is recommended to use a special album kolerov which contains 130 standards kolerov and accordingly structures for their preparation. If it was not possible to find such album, structure selection kolerov can be carried out independently. For this purpose it is necessary to use small capacities in which the colour pigments dissolved with water to a pastelike consistence prepare white koler and some. Seldom necessary koler it turns out by means of one any pigment. As a rule, it is necessary to apply some pigments - the basic and additional. For reception of the necessary colour of glutinous structure by small portions enter primary colour paste. After careful hashing and check of intensity of the received colour by trial colouring add pigmentary paste of other colour.

For reception of the pure sated colour in koler sometimes add wax emulsiju. It prepare from beeswax which in number of 50 g (for reception 1000 g emulsii) put in 100 g waters and warm up before fusion. Then at continuous stirring add 100 g liquid ammonia. The received mix dilute in 750 g at its finest.

Kazeinovye structures considerably surpass a film received at colouring by glutinous paints in durability. They are characterised by a soft matte surface. For paint preparation take 10% th solution kazeinovogo glue and at constant fast hashing enter drying oil before formation emulsii. In prepared in advance colourful paste gradually at constant stirring pour in received emulsiju. At work with kazeinovymi paints it is necessary to watch that the structure has not been too dissolved by water or had surplus of glue. Surplus of water can lead to formation potekov on a surface, glue - to occurrence of wrinkles.

Limy painting structures prepare from the limy test, salt and water. For preparation of 10 l kolera 3 kg of the limy test which is planted with 6 l of water are required. For the purpose of prevention melenija a limy covering in structure add 0,1 kg of the salt diluted in 0,5 l of water. The received structure dilute with water to 10 l. Colour limy structures apply seldom because in a combination with izvestju the limited quantity of pigments can be used. Mineral pigments first of all concern them - ohra, soot, a sienna natural, umbra, etc.

Sequence of colouring by not water paints: and - drawing of the first layer; in - horizontal and vertical shading Vodoemulsionnye of paint ВА-17, ВА-27ПГ (polivinilatsetatnye), and also КН-26А and КН-26 (stirolbutadienovye) use for colouring of the plastered surfaces, wooden elements, concrete surfaces, DVP, DSP and after application of oil or enamel structures.

Polivinilatsetatnye put painting structures without preliminary ogruntovki. For shpatlevki is better to apply structures on the basis of PVE, however it is possible to use and shpatlevku under oil paints.

Colouring in house conditions is recommended to be made the platen, preliminary a bench hammer having made otvodku at a ceiling and a plinth, and also having painted internal corners of a premise. It is impossible to cover with vodoemulsionnymi paints the surfaces painted by glutinous paints, and also a first coat intended under glutinous paints (drawing see).

Colouring oil, enamel and nitro-paints is made only after full drying of the prepared surface. A tolstyjsloj paint will inevitably become covered by wrinkles or cracks after full drying. Besides, at surplus the paint flows down on a surface or droops sacks, forming hillocks and roughnesses.

At a choice of the tool for work it is necessary to mean that small surfaces can be painted mahovymi brushes, wooden designs - windows, doors, platbands - brushes-bench hammers. A paint type a brush on a hair doormat, and surplus wring out about capacity edge. At first it put on a surface fat zigzag strips, otstojashchimi one from another on small distance. After on a brush does not remain the paints put on a wall of a strip shade the same brush in a cross-section direction, and then - from top to down. It allows to avoid admissions and paint stratifications.

At colouring of window covers, door boxes, cloths and plinths it is necessary to pay special attention on quality of preparation of a surface. Appearance of filling will depend on it window and doorways and finally - quality of repair of apartment as a whole substantially. Window covers, door cloths and platbands it is necessary shpatlevat some times with the subsequent polishing by an emery paper before reception of absolutely smooth surface. After the first colouring all defects which have been not noticed in process shpatlevki will immediately be shown. Therefore after full drying of the first painting layer the appeared cracks and dents it is necessary zashpatlevat, to process a sandpaper, and then to paint two times.

Not to spend time for clearing of handles, latches, etc., before their colouring it is recommended to remove, and after full drying of a paint to put into place. At colouring of windows it is necessary to use the cardboard, plywood or tin guard put in places of colouring shtapikov that will allow to avoid paint hit on walls. The same guards are expedient for using also at colouring of plinths and platbands. Before colouring of windows of glass on a contour it is possible to paste over also with a gluing tape, paper strips on soap water, etc.

Reception of impressive surfaces and drawing stuffing: and - cutting of a surface by means of the fur platen; - cutting of a surface by means of a rigid brush (tortsevanie); in - nakatka the platen; g - stuffing of drawing by means of a cliche especially smooth, almost the smooth surface can be received at colouring by enamels. That they laid down a thin layer, they should be warmed up, having put to bank with a paint in hot water. Colouring by nitroenamels is recommended to be made a pistol-spray as fast drying of paints considerably complicates work as brushes. At work as brushes it is necessary to put a paint small sites and now it to shade.

Alfrejnye of work are various kinds of art furnish of the surfaces, received nakatkoj relief platens, stuffing of drawings by cliches, furnish under various invoices of materials, etc. (drawing see). Nakatku relief platens apply in case of need drawing drawings on the painted surface of a wall. Platens produce from rubber or plastic. The platen picked up for drawing fix in the machine tool in which the smooth platen from porous rubber or foam rubber is established. Platens should be densely pressed to each other.

The Paint put on the porous platen a brush. Then both platens turn so that the relief was well moistened with it. Drawing roll vertical movements of the machine tool from top to down. The front page roll on the vertical line noted by means of a plumb and namelennogo of a cord. Rolling each new strip, the platen put to a surface the same point which in the form of a special label is available on each platen. The platens connected to the tank for a paint are more convenient in work. The relief platen is thus moistened with painting structure by means of two others, located in a tank.

Difficult multi-coloured drawing is rolled by means of a set of platens with consecutive nakatkoj kolerom different colour. Stuffing of drawings by cliches is made in living rooms on a surface of walls and ceilings after end of the basic painting works. Cliches produce from a dense paper, a cardboard, celluloid sheets and other materials maintaining repeated humidifying by colourful structures. The picked up drawing transfer by means of a transfer paper or a tracing-paper. If the selected drawing is small, it can be increased by means of a pantograph, epidiaskopa or a photographic enlarger. Put on a paper, a cardboard, etc. Drawing cut out sharply perfected knife. That the cliche served longer, a paper or a cardboard follows proolifit, to varnish or an oil paint. If the conceived or selected drawing multi-colour, for stuffing of each colour prepare a new cliche. For this purpose drawing put on some sheets of paper and in each of them cut contours of drawing of one colour.

Fill drawing a brush-bench hammer of the small size with rigid short volosom. For this purpose a cliche put to a surface on in advance beaten off by a chalk by means of a cord to horizontal lines. A cliche press the left hand to a surface, and right fill drawing. A paint put a semidamp brush an end face.

At multi-colour stuffing each colour is recommended to be filled a separate brush, putting a new cliche only after full drying of the previous stuffing. Not to spoil stuffing, work should be carried out without hurrying up, carefully wringing out a superfluous paint from a brush and constantly wiping a rag a cliche underside.

Furnish under a tree, more often under an oak, is more rare in imitation walnut or the mahogany, is carried out on well prepared surface by oil or glutinous structures. At furnish under an oak in the beginning put the first paint layer which name a ground. It should be the light yellow (light brown) colour simulating the most light sites of wood. For painting structure it is possible to use ohru golden with small amount addition umbry and zinc whitewash.

After prosyhanija a ground put the second, nakryvochnyj a layer. It should be more dark than a ground. For reception of such colour use a sienna natural or ohru golden with addition bolshego quantities umbry. Right after drawings process a nakryvochnyj layer a brush - rashlestno and with the long pile extending on the end. With its help it is possible protsarapat the top layer to a ground, forming on a surface the thin light and wavy lines simulating fibres of wood. For creation of drawing of annual rings use a steel or rubber crest, which protsarapyvajut wider strips. By means of a crest create drawing of a ring round a knot. At use of wider teeths of a crest receive wide layers of an oak.

Vytjagivanie of panels is applied to division of the surfaces painted in various colours by means of narrow colour strips. They help to hide roughnesses which often turn out in joints between raznookrashennymi surfaces. Panels put special filenchatoj a brush or a cliche. Before the work beginning with the help namelennogo a cord it is necessary to beat off a line. At vytjagivanii panels the brush uses a ruler in length 70... 80 sm with oblique facets. Having dipped a brush into a paint, movement from left to right spend a line. Thus it is necessary to mean that pressing of a brush and a corner of its inclination should not vary. After that a ruler move to the right and the begun line continue in the same way. Certain skills in work that the panel turned out identical width on all length are required, had no joints and curvatures. The panel should not be extended at once on a wall, it is better to "be trained" preliminary in it somewhere on other surface. It is necessary to mean also that the painting structure for vytjagivanija panels should be liquid enough and at the same time viscous, viscous. For this purpose in glutinous structure add a few waters with the dissolved sugar or treacle, grain kvass, etc. An oil paint dilute solvents.

Stuffing of panels on a cliche less difficult, however is more long, as demands breaks in the work, connected with drying of the previous line. Therefore by means of a cliche it is possible to fill panels mainly water paints. For manufacturing of cliches the dense drawing paper, a cardboard, a celluloid film and other materials are used. Technics of stuffing of panels the same that at stuffing of drawings on a cliche.

Tortsevanie is carried out for reception of a rough matte surface. Work is made by means of a brush or a brush struck on svezhenanesennomu to a painting layer. Thus brush hair should be perpendicular to a surface.

Tupovka which are carried out after drying of the basic painting layer, is carried out by a special brush-tupovkoj, rubber, porolonovoj or a natural sponge which after wetting by a paint by easy pressing nestle on the painted surface. As a result on a surface the bitmap of other colour is formed.

Nabryzg, as well as tupovka, allows to receive a bitmap different on colour on the painted surface. It is put by means of a rigid brush, a brush, a spray or kraskoraspylitelja. At use for nabryzga a brush moisten with structure, wring out about capacity edge then blows about wooden rejku, kept in horizontal position near to a wall, put splashes. Thus it is necessary to watch that rejka at movement was equally spaced from a wall, and movement of a hand and force of blow were identical.

For nabryzga it is possible to use rigid odezhnuju a brush with which having moistened in a paint, have on distance 10... 15 sm from a wall. Nabryzg it is made wooden rejkoj or the handle of the brush spent along a brush by movement on. At nabryzge a spray or kraskoraspylitelem it is necessary to reduce giving of air by valve overlapping. Before drawing nabryzga on a wall preliminary it is necessary to establish distance from a wall to other surface which it is possible then to clear of splashes.

Colouring of external elements of the house

Before to start works on colouring of external elements of the house, it is necessary to finish the device of a roof, elements of a drain, window slivov, and also to correct all damages which are available on a surface of walls. It is not recommended to make work in dry and hot weather, and also during a rain or on a crude surface. Parts and details of the house which will not be painted, it is necessary to cover with available improvised materials or to put on them a clay solution. It will allow to protect elements of a facade from casual splashes and stains.

Work on colouring of external elements of the house, as well as on colouring internal, consists of preparatory operations and directly painting. Except the paints of factory manufacturing specially intended for external works, in practice of individual building traditional colourful structures, such as izvestkovo-cement, cement, silicate, etc.

are used also

The Izvestkovo-cement paint prepares directly ahead of the beginning of works. Prepare a paint as follows. Cement, izvest and pigments mix before reception of a homogeneous dry mix. Then add sand, a flour and again mix. Water enter for half an hour prior to the beginning of work. It is necessary to prepare a dry mix so that it has sufficed on all house. It will allow to provide monotone of a covering. A water solution get mixed up in the portions which should suffice on one business hour.

Before the beginning of works for days and repeatedly for half an hour before colouring it is necessary to humidify the surface Intended under colouring. It is possible to put the Izvestkovo-cement paint or mahovymi brushes, or a manual pistol-spray. The paint is put by brushes in shading. A painting layer in the beginning impose brush movement downwards, then upwards, blocking the previous layer a little. It is not recommended to interrupt work on a facade surface as it can lead to stains. It is possible to do breaks after any site of a facade of the house, limited to corners, windows, etc. will be finished.

The Cement paint prepares on the basis of white cement with addition of pigments and additives. Usually use dry inks of the factory manufacturing, let out several colours. Paint brushes. For drawing of the first layer a dry mix plant with water in the relation 1:1. The second layer do much more densely - structure 1:0,5 - and put it in a day after drawing of the first.

The Silicate paint prepares from liquid glass and ready dry mixes. As the binding potash liquid glass in density 1,15 is used. The dry pigmentary mix mixes up with liquid glass in the relation 1:1 and is diluted with water to a working consistence. Put a paint in the same ways, as water structures. Glasses of windows for protection against paint hit cover with fatty greasing with a chalk or close boards, plywood, etc. It is impossible to use for paint preparation natrievoe liquid glass as it promotes formation of stains on the painted surface. For increase in durability of a silicate paint in it add special additives ГКЖ-10 (etilsilikat sodium) or ГКЖ-11 (metilsilikat sodium). The quantity of additives makes 0,1 weights of liquid glass.

In addition on a theme "Painting Furnish яюьхЁхэшщ":

Kinds of paints
Paints for external works
This disobedient wall-paper

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