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Plaster works

Plaster works should be carried out only when all will be finished the basic obshchestroitelnye the works excluding damage and pollution of plaster. Oshtukaturivanie surfaces carry out as inside, and outside of the house. Service conditions and appointment of plasters define a choice of structures and ways of their drawing.

Oshtukaturivanie of internal surfaces.

By manufacture of plaster works in premises provide: surface preparation, the device of beacons, nabryzg, a first coat and nakryvku. Surface preparation depends on a material and quality of a wall or overlapping. So, the brick and stone walls executed vpustoshovku, clear of a dust, a dirt, vysolov, traces of an oil paint, etc. A steel brush. If it is required to plaster a concrete surface, on it in the beginning do a notch, then clear and wash out water. Shlakobetonnye surfaces or notch or fit a wire on the nails hammered into wooden stoppers. New walls from butovogo a stone clear steel brushes, and seams deepen on 15... 20 mm. Even better such wall preliminary to fit the metal woven grid attached by nails to wooden stoppers, established in seams.

Before oshtukaturivaniem it is necessary to upholster Wooden walls to lathing or a metal grid, the Shingle produce from wooden reek in the width 1 5... 20 and thickness 3... 5 mm. It beat to a wall surface in two ranks (bottom and top) perpendicularly one to another and at an angle 45 ° to a floor. The distance between laths should make 40... 45 mm. To connect dran on length it is necessary with a backlash 2... 3 mm. Default of this condition can lead rastreskivaniju plasters at humidifying and swelling of laths.

Instead of drani it is possible to use a wattled or woven metal grid with cells no more 50X50 mm. A wattled grid hardly pull on a surface and fix nails the in length 50... 70 mm on distance 100... 120 mm from each other. It is necessary to hammer in nails not up to the end, and to leave 10... 1 5 mm for the bends fixing a grid. The woven grid is better for fixing to preliminary filled rejkam in the thickness 3... 6 mm. To avoid corrosion, grids and nails should be painted an oil paint, to varnish or cement milk. To wooden ceilings of a grid fix in the same way, as to walls.

Oshtukaturivanie of walls to a beginner shtukaturu is better to conduct on so-called beacons. For the device of beacons, first of all, it is necessary provesit walls, i.e. To check up a deviation of their surface from vertical and horizontal planes. Gvozdimye walls and ceilings proveshivajut by means of nails, a cord and a plumb.

At proveshivanii walls hammer in the first nail in its top part on distance 20... 25 sm from a corner of a wall and from a ceiling on depth at which the nail hat acts on the surface equal to the accepted thickness of plaster - from 5 to 30 mm depending on a material and quality of a surface of a wall. To a nail hat put (or adhere) a plumb on which hammer in the second nail on distance of 25 sm from a floor so that the hat concerned a cord. Similarly proveshivajut an opposite side of this wall. If height of a premise more than 3 m at proveshivanii hammer in intermediate nails according to a plumb.

Sequence of installation of marks at proveshivanii walls Then pull a cord on a diagonal between the top and bottom nails of opposite sides. The tense cord should not be approached to acting parts of a wall more than on 5... 10 mm. If the cord concerns a surface or will defend from it on distance less than 5 mm the first top nail interrupt taking into account the minimum thickness of plaster on acting parts. Accordingly, having repeated proveshivanie, interrupt also other nails. Then a cord tension between nails in top, and then in bottom wall parts define marks and hammer in intermediate nails across. In the same way, but by means of a plumb define level and hammer in intermediate nails on a vertical (drawing see).

Sequence of installation of marks at proveshivanii walls

solution Drawing on a ceiling in the Similar way proveshivajut and gvozdimye ceilings, check level zabivki nails not a cord, and vaterpasom. For proveshivanija negvozdimyh walls and ceilings apply marks from a plaster solution which establish in described above sequence. For this purpose on a wall surface put the grandma from a plaster solution which press a grater to necessary height according to a plumb or a cord.

In the Same way establish marks and on negvozdimyh ceilings. To established in the form of nails or plaster flat cakes to marks vertically put a rule and fix its plaster solution. Space between a rule and a plane of ste thow fill with the plaster test or an izvestkovo-plaster solution after which hardening corrected remove. On a wall surface there is a strip in width 50... 80 mm, named a beacon. Strip edges should be cut off and smoothed down accurately on the ends. Beacons it is possible to have on distance 1200... 1500 mm one from another.

At the small area of the surface intended under oshtukaturivanie, it is possible to replace plaster beacons wooden, made of reek in the thickness 15... 20 and width 30... 35 mm. The length reek should be on 50 mm of less height of a premise. proveshivanie and the device of beacons carry out in this case on premise corners. Across from above and from below pull cords, in level with which on an izvestkovo-plaster or plaster solution fix rejki with the step specified above. Places of a leaky adjunction reek to a wall fill with a solution.

Oshtukaturivanie is better to make poslojno. Thus on a surface consistently, with certain breaks put three plaster coats - nabryzg, a ground and nakryvku. In one step to put thick layers of a solution does not follow, as they can slip in the course of work, and after drying rastreskivatsja.

Nabryzg put on a plastered surface to liquidate roughnesses and roughnesses. The thickness of a layer makes 4... 5 mm for stone and concrete walls and about 10 mm for the wooden. For nabryzga use more liquid (smetanoobraznye) the solutions well linked to a surface, filling deepenings and other defective places. A solution throw kelmoj for plaster works from the falcon. That the solution kept within an equal layer, it type equal quantities and throw from identical distance.

In process nabrasyvanija a solution the left hand take the falcon a board upwards so that it lay on a hand. In the right hold plaster kelmu. On a board plane kelmoj impose a solution and bring it to a work place. From the falcon a solution type the end or the right edge kelmy from itself. Nabrasyvanie a solution on a wall it is made by sharp movement of a brush of a hand (drawing see).

The Ground - the second layer plaster nameta which is put on a layer nabryzga. Its thickness makes 10... 20 mm. A ground - the basic layer plaster nameta, providing a necessary thickness of plaster. For a ground more dense solutions, than for nabryzga are used. Throw it kelmoj to level of beacons, and then level a rule. For this purpose a rule in length 120... 150 sm (depending on distance between beacons) move Oshtukaturivanie of walls on beacons: and - installation machkov from reek; - levelling of a solution by means of a rule or rejki on beacons; in - zatirka; 1 - a brick wall; 2 - beacons from reek; 3 - a rule for rejki; 4 - a plaster layer; 5 - a grater on beacons from below upwards sharp zigzag movements (drawing see). A plaster layer level on beacons, and surpluses of a solution dump in capacity.

At the first alignment the surface usually has many defects, emptiness, etc. Therefore it is necessary to fill such places with a solution and to repeat process before reception of an equal rough surface. Between beacons it is possible to put a ground on a wall surface and in another way - namazyvaniem a solution the falcon. Thus the bottom part of the falcon with a solution approach to a wall on the distance equal to a thickness of a plaster layer, and top put aside from a wall on 100 mm. The falcon move from below upwards. In process of its movement the solution is smeared on a surface. With similar way smear a solution and on a ceiling. In this case one part of the falcon press to it kelmoj, and another put aside from it on 50... 100 mm. After namazyvanija a solution level on beacons before reception of an equal rough surface.

Nakryvka - a finishing plaster coat which rub clean and smooth down. It is put after shvatyvanija a layer of earth in the thickness no more by than 2 mm. A solution for nakryvki apply fatter (with the big maintenance to exhaust and small sand), than for nabryzga and a ground. Thus it is necessary to track, that in a solution there was no coarse-grained sand which at zatirke and smoothing down leaves furrows. With that end in view making components of a solution for нaкрывки should be sifted more carefully, applying a sieve with small cells.

The Ground before drawing nakryvochnogo a layer moisten with water by means of a brush. A solution throw over a surface kelmoj, levelling it poluterkom wavy movements from below upwards. After nakryvochnyj the layer will a little dry up, and the plaster layer does not float any more, but still damp, it is necessary to begin zatirku.

Zatirka is carried out by a grater. For this purpose it take in the right hand, densely pressing to plaster, and move on a surface round counter-clockwise. Thus separate bugorki are cut off by a grater, and the cut off solution gets to deepenings that promotes surface alignment. If nevertheless after zatirki there are bowls, add a quantity of a solution and rub clean them. At podsyhanii nakryvochnogo a layer prior to the beginning zatirki it moisten with water by means of a brush.

At carrying out of plaster works it is necessary to give special attention to furnish of sides and corners. Sides should be precisely vertical or horizontal. That the side corner has turned out sharp, to wall edge put and attach an equal board so that it acted from a wall plane for a thickness of a plaster layer. After hardening of plaster a board remove. Otshtukaturivanie of window slopes: and - installation reek on level and a plumb; - malka; in - position malki at oshtukaturivanii slopes; 1 - a wall; 2 - wooden rejka; 3 - malka; 4 - a wall cut; 5 - a window box; 6 - Corners which can be while in service subject to destruction, it is necessary to strengthen a solution a metal grid or a lath and it is good to close up a solution.

Window and door slopes plaster after careful fastening of boxes. For-zory between boxes zakonopachivajut. A tow or cotton wool condense so that to a box surface there was a backlash 2... 3 see

Internal slopes plaster with some skosom from boxes to a surface of walls therefore the so-called dawn of window slopes turns out. The corner of a dawn of all slopes should be identical for what it measure a square which put on the one hand in a box quarter, and with another sharnirno fix a lath or a ruler for definition of an external side of a slope (drawing see).

Before the beginning of works on the top part of a slope strictly horizontally by means of water level hang a rule or rejku, fixed to a wall a plaster solution or nails. By means of a plumb establish and fix rejki on lateral external sides of a slope.

Before solution drawing it is necessary to make the special adaptation - malku. It represents wooden rejku, shi-rinoj 30... 40, thickness - 20... 25 mm and the length equal to width of a slope on a hypotenuse of a triangle, obrazuemogo window or a doorway and a box. On one party malki rectangular cut becomes. By one end with cut malka it is established on a box, and another - on a rule or rejku, fixed on an external side of a slope.

Plastering slopes, a solution put kelmoj or the falcon and level malkoj, moving it lengthways rejki and boxes as on beacons. Cut in malke is necessary that at removal of a solution it was not flush with a box, and would leave on it a strip in width 15... 20 mm. Having filled slopes with a ground, prepare nakryvochnyj a solution which is levelled poluterkom and rubbed clean by a grater. After zatirki rules or rejki act in film.



In addition on a theme "Plaster Ёрсю=№":

External furnish by decorative plasters
plaster Repair

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