Windows and doors
For full independent manufacturing of windows and doors rather high qualification is necessary, therefore, as it almost always and happens, it is necessary to use ready elements, to mount filling window and doorways even not separate details, and modular blocks. The sizes of such blocks are necessary for considering necessarily at erection of walls, differently the size of an aperture should be reduced then at the expense of frame manufacturing if it is more the than necessary. Its increase, let us assume, in the house with concrete walls in general can appear almost unsoluble problem.
Installation of window and door blocks will have some features depending on a material of walls of your house. In wooden houses with rublenymi walls of special difficulties it is not expected, window covers and door cloths in this case fasten to frames, apertures. It consists of 4 elements: vershnik and a pillow settle down, accordingly, from above and from below, 2 jambs on each side are arranged. Among themselves all it communicates shipovymi connections. On logs of walls crests which on all length are inserted into the grooves which are available in jambs in advance are cut out. Sometimes such grooves become and from below, in pillows. Window covers or a door cloth are included into a quarter chosen from the interior of an aperture at all elements.
Installation of elements of a frame is better for beginning with a pillow. It keeps within on a log sruba on a layer of felt, a tow or other teploizoljatsionnogo a material. Then, too on an isolating layer, jambs, and the last vershnik are established. So far as concerned erection rublenyh walls, it was already specified that between vershnikom and a log sruba the backlash which is caulked and only year through ones and a half, after the termination house deposits is left, closed up definitively by a bar.
In the stone house window and door blocks are established on places prior to the beginning of plaster works. It is preliminary necessary to take care of fastening in a wall wooden antiseptirovannyh stoppers to which windows and the doors established by blocks fasten. The surface of blocks turned to stone walls, it is necessary to process an antiseptic tank and to protect from rehumidifying by linings from roofing material or roofing felt. With lateral and top the aperture parties it is necessary to make quarters depth 6,5 the Box see should be less o an aperture in quarters on 4-8 see And do not forget the elementary moment of a door in the house should open outside.
At the device of doors thresholds become in external walls and at transition from not heated premise, for example a hall, in a warm living room. Well in this case simply to raise on pair centimetres a floor in a warm premise in comparison with the cold. Between inhabited and in general heated rooms thresholds do not become, they will disturb only. The bottom bar of a box of the block after installation is levelled by wedges across, vertical position lateral bruskov is checked on a plumb Its cord lowered from the center vershnika, should pass through a point of intersection at block diagonals. If the box is made exactly and correctly sizes of diagonals should coincide. At adjustment of horizontal position by wedges it is necessary to consider that these efforts should operate only on box end faces.
At installation of window and door blocks it is necessary to track also that all of them on identical distance have been put forward in a building on all its perimetre. Before definitively to fix window and door blocks in apertures, do not forget to check up once again, whether shutters of windows, transoms or window leaves, door cloths are well closed. If necessary once again correct wedges and check up on a plumb and level correctness of position of a box.
For fastening of boxes of window and door blocks to stone, brick partitions and external walls in wooden stoppers which already it was mentioned above, steel ruffs are hammered. Everyone vertical 6pÑƒc boxes should be fixed not less than in two places with distance between ruffs approximately 1 m. In backlashes between a laying and a box keeps within teploizoljatsionnyj a material with which it is necessary to moisten with a plaster solution.
At installation of the door block in an internal partition it should be put forward for a thickness of a plaster coat in one party so that the platband adjoined simultaneously to a wall and the box. If a partition of already door block brusok a necessary thickness it is sewed under a platband. If, on the contrary, a thickness of a partition more than width of a box brusok it is sewed on the one hand boxes. Last operation at installation of the door block fastening of platbands is carried out already after oshtukaturivanija and labels of wall-paper and before installation of plinths. That platbands adjoined to partitions more densely, their fastening becomes with napuskom in 1-2 see Usually thus the nails which hat it is a little utaplivajutsja are used.
After installation of the window block with separate covers it from within is closed by a platband so that last did not prevent to open and close a window shutter. From outside streets to a window box metal outflow with kapelnikom fastens, the window sill which inside should be processed an antiseptic tank from within is established and laid on a thermal protection layer. In a wall the window sill is closed up approximately on 4 sm from each party with a small bias in a premise. End faces closed up in a wall not only antiseptirujutsja, but also are isolated by a roofing material layer.
Glass works. Products from glass
The Industry lets out wide assortment of products from glass. Them concern shlakositallovye plates and glass tiles, has flown down profile building, door cloths from the tempered glass, stemalit, penosteklo, a glass crumb, etc.
In building the silicate glass made by fusion of a mix from quartz sand, soda and limestone in special furnaces is most often applied at 1400-1600 Â°s. The mix cooks before reception of homogeneous liquid weight into which p ri necessities enter the various components improving properties of glass or giving to it set colour.
Sheet window glass produce by special cars a method vertical vytjagivanija. It can be colourless or with a green or blue shade. Depending on a kind and a glass grade are supposed polosnost at which the form of subjects considered through it, svil (narrow threadlike strips, not visible on light), etc. the Sizes of glasses, mm is not deformed: length 500-2200, width 400 - 1600, a thickness 2-6.
Figured glass receive a method of horizontal hire on the engraved rollers from colourless or colour steklomassy. Glass drawing disseminates light beams and does its not looked through. It is used for osteklenija doors, partitions, etc. The best light-scattering qualities characterise glasses with a relief pattern in the form of small prisms or lenses. The sizes, mm: length 600-2200, width 400-1600, tolshchina3-6.
Reinforced sheet glass inside has a metal grid from a wire in diameter of 0,35-0,45 mm. A surface of colourless or colour glass smooth or figured. The colour glass made from painted steklomassy, can be yellow, temnozelenogo, svetlozelenogo, temnorozovogo, svetlorozovogo, blue, azure, dark blue or violet colour. Glass at rastreskivanii does not give splinters. Differs the raised fire resistance. Svetopropuskanie at a thickness of 5,5 mm not less than 60%.
Color sheet glass produce from colour steklomassy vertical vytjagivaniem or connection of a layer colourless steklomassy with a colour unprofitable layer in the thickness to 1 mm. Apply for osteklenija verandahs, svetoprozrachnyh partitions, stained-glass windows, etc. the Sizes of glass, mm: length 1000-1200, width 500-900, a thickness 3-6.
Glass blocks represent products with the hermetically sealed cavity formed at welding of two pressed boxes with smooth external and corrugated (or too smooth) internal surfaces. They can be colourless and colour. Are applied to the device svetoprozrachnyh protections (walls, partitions, fillings of apertures, etc.). Are issued by the sizes 194X194X98 and 244Ð¥ Ð¥244Ð¥98 mm.
To the auxiliary materials applied to glass works, putty and fixing elements concern. Window putty is issued by the industry and arrives in retail trade. However it is possible to prepare it and most. Natural drying oil and a chalk for this purpose will be necessary. To prepare 1 kg of glass putty, it is necessary to take 200-250 g drying oils and 800 g a ground chalk. A handful of a dry chalk fill on the plywood or tin basis. In the middle do small deepening where pour natural drying oil. Then drying oil and a chalk mix a stick before reception of the dense test. This dough roll in a cretaceous powder and knead hands before reception of sufficient hardness, and then beat off a hammer. Sometimes for simplification of work add to putty of a few water, and for acceleration of drying a little an oil varnish. However it is necessary to know that water addition essentially reduces quality of putty. The more chilly swept, the better putty. The varnish additive does putty firm and fragile, in due course it bursts. Putty for hothouses (hotbeds, greenhouses) prepare on bitumen or pekovoj for a basis. The first consists of the bitumen dissolved in gasoline or uajtspirite with napolnitelem from ashes of thermal power station, sand, cement, etc., the second of a solution of a coal pitch in solvente with same napolniteljami.
To glass fastening in folds of wooden covers apply hairpins and small nails in length of 20-25 mm, and at their absence stalistuju a wire in the thickness of 1-1,5 mm which can break at two-three excesses. For this purpose use also shtapiki, the representing narrow wooden laths established atop glass, laid on one layer of putty. SHtapiki fix nails or the screws which size depends on the size of glass and shtapika. In metal covers to fastening of glasses, besides, apply kljammery, made of tonkolistovoj the zinced steel.
Works on ostekleniju apertures consist of following basic operations: marking and cuttings of glass, strengthening has flown down hairpins or shtapikami and puttyings of folds. A marking and glass cutting is better to make on a special little table which can be made most. Length of a cover of a table 1500, width of 800 mm. The table surface should be equal, covered with felt or linoleum. A covering krepjat rejkami, established by means of screws on the right and left edges of a table. The forward edge of a table should be also equal and smooth. On it along a measured ruler move a head of the T-square with rejkoj. Under a table cover there is a drawer where store goggles, steklorezy and other adaptations. Behind a table on a floor establish a box in length of 1000 mm for small scraps of glass.
At a marking and razrezke has flown down quantity of a waste should be minimum. That glass was included freely into folds and did not burst at swelling wooden or at compression on a frost of metal covers, the sizes of glass should be on 4 mm of less distance between cover edges. Glass put on a table surface, press its one of the parties to left basic rejke, establish the T-square on necessary division of a measured ruler and, pressing steklorez to the T-square, cut. For are sharp tonkolistovogo glasses (thickness of 1-4 mm) use roller steklorezy from a firm alloy. Steklorez has three cutting rollers, built in in brass barabanchik. Having weakened the screw barabanchika, it is possible to turn and establish into position any cutting roller. At rezke the handle stekloreza hold vertically, pressing it from above a forefinger. From below along a cut line slightly tap steklorezom before formation of deep cracks then glass break off. Glass in the thickness to 10 mm cut diamond steklorezami for which manufacturing use the whole crystals or their splinters. The cut surface should be carefully cleared of dust, a dirt, ice and a moisture.
Starting to rezke, it is necessary to find the necessary things in common of a side of diamond with glass, inclining the handle diamond stekloreza forward or back on a line are sharp.
At correct position of the handle stekloreza diamond does not slide on a glass surface, at the same time is rough it does not scratch and at moving publishes the equal sound accompanied by easy crackling. The cut line should be hardly appreciable. A cut off part has flown down break off about a table edge. For oblamyvanija glass strips it is possible to use also flat-nose pliers if their sponge preliminary to fit soft rubber.
Glass Strengthening is carried out usually by means of round wire hairpins in the thickness by of 1,2 mm. Of 17-20 mm unbend the end of a wire in length at an angle 90 Â° and put to a fold. The hairpin is hammered on depth by of 8-10 mm a lateral side of a chisel, making blows sliding on glass, and then break off it from a wire. Glass should not rest the edge against a hairpin: it can lead to crack formation on glass at swelling of window covers. At prodab of folds of a hairpin it is necessary to close completely a putty layer.
Cover Folds coat with putty, putting it on all length of a fold a layer in the thickness of 2-3 mm. It is necessary that glass has densely laid down on folds and did not vibrate at a strong wind, and during a rain water did not get into backlashes between folds and glass that can become the reason of rotting of covers or formations of cracks on glass at water freezing in backlashes. Glass insert into folds, slightly pressing his hands that putty has in regular intervals dispersed on folds and has closed them on 75-80%. Between glasses and a board fal tsa the backlash in width not less than 2 mm should be left. Putty should close completely falets, densely adjoin to glass and have identical width on all perimetre of a fold. Indoors, where insert glasses, the temperature should be not more low 15 Â°s; at lower putty periodically warm up in hot water till 30-40 "S
At puttying folds are filled with the putty which top surface is levelled at once by a chisel. For simplification of work from time to time a chisel lower in pure water. At installation shtapika its bottom party cover with a thin layer of putty and attach to cover by nails in length of 20 mm or screws (average distance between them of 15 sm). For simplification of colouring of windows shtapiki it is recommended to paint preliminary. In metal frames (in greenhouses etc.) glasses fasten by means of wedges from the zinced tin.
Work with glass demands extra care. It is necessary to remember that it is impossible to cut glasses on weight, on a knee, on casual subjects. At oblamyvanii thick glasses in sponges of flat-nose pliers it is necessary to put rags in avoidance rastreskivanija glasses. The tools applied to glass works, it is necessary to strengthen well on handles. The hammer handle should extend by the end for maintenance of "a strong grasp". Wooden squares and rulers for glass works should be smooth, equal, with the handle in the middle. The Workplace and approaches to it should be well shined, are not encumbered and to be kept clean.
For zasteklenija or replacements of the broken glasses in windows above the ground floor it is necessary to remove covers from loops preliminary. To transfer glasses it is necessary in vertical position, holding them sideways. To bear glass, keeping it before itself, and also in horizontal position it is dangerous.