For a long time it is established that the one-storeyed design is the most convenient for the individual house. But if all of you have decided to build the house in two floors or more the internal ladder necessarily thus is required. Except the direct functional purpose, the ladder is also the important element of an interior, it should be not only is convenient and safe, but also is beautiful. A number of steps of the ladder, laid to a thicket on two, and sometimes and on one inclined beam between two platforms is called as a march. Ladders can be one, two, multimid-flight, screw, round. If beams settle down on each side steps they are called as bowstrings, if under steps kosourami.
For manufacturing of wooden ladders it is better to use the dry, sustained wood of a larch, a pine, an oak. The fur-tree for this purpose will not approach, it too soft. The special attention is necessary for turning on durability of a design. The ladder should be strongly fixed from above and from below, kosoury, made of boards in the thickness to 5 sm, should for bolshej to reliability be pulled together with inhalings from metal cores.
Podstupenki become from boards in the thickness of 18 mm. On appear, boards for which in order to avoid concavity should be established by the convex party outside, and ladder platforms go boards to 24 mm. Connections of boards are among themselves carried out only on screws, since. Nails do not give necessary durability, become loose and weaken eventually. The step height should not exceed 15-18 see At ladder designing it is necessary to consider that optimum the ladder steepness will be at a parity 1:2. For this purpose at height podstupenki in 15 its sm prostup (width) should be equal 30 see But such ladder will take too much place, therefore often it is necessary to endow a little convenience and to accept a parity, heights and width of a step about equal 1:1. Thus exists corrected that the sum of these sizes should be equal 45 see
For convenience in a ladder it is better to do number of steps odd, not less than three in a march. The most convenient and simple ladders on a design with a rectilinear march. Two-mid-flight become with identical number of steps in both marches which it is more convenient right-hand. The width of a march should make about 1 m and in any way less than 60 sm, differently it will be very difficult to adult person to use such ladder. The height of a handrail should be not less than 90 see
its type named concerns the most simple in manufacturing to ladders "a duck step". Two three-metre boards will be necessary For its manufacturing sorokovki from a dry pine. Their width should make 40 see these boards on bokoviny ladders Will go. Steps also become from pine boards of thickness in 3 see
The Spiral staircase looks so in an original way that can be an interior basis, thus harmoniously joining the general conditions. A basic element of such ladder zabezhnye steps, appear at which only in the middle have normal width, the external edge at them is wider, and internal already. More often spiral staircases happen metal, but in them the most various other materials are used also. For normal operation the width of a march should be not less than metre, the protection becomes the same height.