So, capital external walls and internal partitions of your house are ready. Now they should be blocked from above. And not only them. For example, we already spoke about a cellar, and after all it too is blocked. Here how it becomes, and we will have a talk. Depending on the overlapping location can be nadpodvalnymi (socle), interfloor and garret. The basic requirements to overlappings consist in durability, rigidity, simplicity of the device of a design. Overlappings should provide good zvuko and a thermal protection, vlagonepronitsaemost, to be durable and fire-resistant.
The kind of overlapping Most traditional for our conditions is the device of a board flooring on wooden beams in which quality can be used both logs, and bars of square or rectangular section. Is more often for this purpose coniferous breeds of a tree are used. Beams are the bearing design maintaining considerable loading, therefore they should be well dried within not less than 2-3 months, not have cracks and other defects.
In garret and interfloor overlappings of a beam lean against walls only the ends. To put beams follows often enough, through 0,6-1,5 m. their Height should not be less 1/24 of part of length, it depends and on width of blocked flight. So, if flight only in 2 m is blocked, and the distance between beams equally 1 m its section makes 12Ñ…6 sm, at distance between beams in 0,6 m - 10x7 see At four-metre blocked flight these sizes accordingly make 20x12 and 16x12 sm, at six-metre - 25x18 and 22x14 see Instead of one bar for a bearing beam it is possible to use boards two hammered together and put on an edge. Thus, certainly, the general cross-section section to decrease, in comparison with the whole beam, should not. The usual boards put on an edge, it is possible to use only at their very frequent arrangement.
In brick, stone and panel board houses of a beam are put on a wall or are got in nests specially left for them. Pay attention to that these nests settled down not more close 40 sm to a flue. The size of a nest should be such that the end of a beam did not get to a wall on 3-5 sm, differently it quickly enough will start to rot. Not to admit it, the ends of beams become covered by bitumen, are closed by two layers of roofing material, become impregnated with an antiseptic tank on 70-80 sm of length though in a nest is located only centimetres 15-20. End faces of beams are not pitched and not closed. It is necessary to track that the surface of all nests has been levelled on height of the arrangement, such alignment by a concrete solution becomes. The bottom of each nest too is covered by roofing material in two layers. Zadelka beams it is made on each side and from above cement shchebenchatym by a solution.
In wooden buildings the ends of beams are cut for all thickness of a wall into the top wreath. Basic elements of interfloor overlapping are beams, nakat, forming a basis of the future ceiling, zasypka and a floor. For packing nakata to a beam it is necessary to beat cranial bruski section from 4x4 to 5x5 the Surface nakata see and the bottom party of a beam should be at one level, nakata it is better to do plates in a quarter for more dense connection. It is closed nakat by a roofing material layer on which is located zasypka or a heater, on it from above again roofing material for bolshej protection against a moisture and only then on a beam floor boards are laid.
That the ceiling was as more as possible equal, it is possible to lay it DSP, a hardboard, sheets of dry plaster on which then and to spend definitive external furnish. The logs isolated by two or more layers of roofing material, keep within on beams at a rare arrangement of the last, in this case the floor is laid on logs.
Now it is a little about heaters. It is possible on vystelennyj roofing material or covered with a solution of clay with the sand additive nakat (the solution necessarily should to dry out well) to fall asleep slag, agloporit or usual wood sawdust. They, by the way, in 4 times it is easier some slag and thus provide in 3 times the best thermal protection at an identical thickness of a layer. So, at winter temperature in 20 Â° zasypka from slag should be in 16 sm of a thickness, agloporita - 12, shavings - 7, and from sawdust only 5 see
Ready plates from mineral cotton wool have well proved as a thermal protection. Plates kz opilkobetona for the same purpose can be made independently. For this purpose it is possible to take 1 volume part of sawdust, 1,5 parts of the limy test or 4 parts of clay, 0,3 parts of cement and from 2 to 2,5 parts of water. Ready plates in a shade are dried up, keep within on ruberoidnoj to a lining, seams are closed up by a clay or limy solution. The square metre such, by the way, also fire-resistant plate weighs about 5-6 kg at a thickness in 10 see