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Rublenye of a wall

Despite occurrence of a great number of various building materials, a tree till now it is applied and, probably, it will be always applied at building of individual apartment houses in quality not only auxiliary, but also the basic material. In the wooden house the ideal microclimate, a material this absolutely pure ecologically is provided, is easy in processing.

At building of houses coniferous breeds a pine and a fur-tree more often are used. To prepare them it is necessary in the winter, the tree cut down in the summer is much more strongly subject To rotting. At drying in it can be formed so-called usushechnye cracks. In this case it is necessary in each log for all its length to do has spent on drink to the center, Than the appeared internal stress is removed, occurrence of the new is warned Cracks in sizes that have already appeared also decrease.

Before log construction to maintain not necessarily, but it is necessary to consider that even if they and are cut down can considerably, from 3 to 12% in the winter drying up all of them equally, to decrease in diameter. The thickness of the logs chosen for construction should be identical, sbeg, i.e. Reduction of diameter, there should not be more than 1 centimetre on metre of length.

Rublenye brezenchatye walls consist of horizontal numbers of the logs laid against each other connected by cuttings on corners. One number connected so on perimetre of logs is called as a wreath, and all of them together, from the basis to a roof, form srub. It is important to pick up especially good logs for the lowermost wreath called okladnym. Often even at building of all sruba from, let us assume, pine, okladnoj the wreath is put from an oak. Its logs should be thicker than the others, they are squared from the inside and with that which will be put on the base. The width such zatesa, named an edging, dolzhka to be not less than 15 One of possible variants of the constructive decision see at building rublenogo at home is shown in drawing.

Design features rublenogo houses with a cellar on brick columns: 1 - timbered nakat; 2 - wreaths; 3 - podkladnaja a board; 4 - roofing material; 5 - a rack; 6 – zabirka; 7 - a brick column; 8 - a ventilating window the Top and bottom logs incorporate in a groove chosen from below each log. Its optimum width of 13-15 sm, the form a semicircle. In grooves for a thermal protection the tow, felt or similar other material is put. Through each 1,52 m wreaths for bolshej stability srashchivajutsja rectangular or round thorns. The sizes of a rectangular thorn make approximately 15x5x3 sm, diameter round 3 see On height sruba thorns should settle down in chessboard order, and in a pier, on the contrary, one steam over another.

Cabin of walls: and - ` in oblo `; – ` in a paw `; 1 – a nest; 2 – a thorn; 3 – a radical thorn Corners of timbered walls can be carried out by cabin with the rest, when the ends of logs perepuskajutsja on size of diameter of a log for an external surface of a wall ("in oblo"), or without such rest ("in a paw"), as is shown in drawing. The cabin without the rest is more economic, but is more labour-consuming and is difficult, corners thus are more strongly blown by a wind. In general about both types of connections it is necessary to talk more in detail.

Cabin "in oblo"

Here an operating procedure at cabin "in oblo". Two are put On two logs from the lowermost okladnogo a wreath across the Marking of logs at cabin others and by means of the special tool, the line very similar to the big compasses, marked. Tool legs are moved apart on half of diameter of the bottom log, it is substituted to a log so that edges of legs stood perpendicularly to logs. One leg moves on a surface of the bottom log, the second draws its contour on the top. The same becomes and on other end of a log. On the received marks the axe cuts down "cup" dredging, the landing density is checked by a log establishment into place, adjustment in case of need becomes. So the first keeps within okladnoj a wreath. On logs of all other wreaths are cut down not only "cups", but also grooves. The order of this work and how thus to use line, are shown in drawing.

Cabin "in a paw"

the Marking at cabin Now about a marking of logs at cabin "in a paw". To begin with the ends of logs thus otesyvajutsja from four parties before reception of the form by them square bruska of 11,5 full diameters of a log. On each squared end of a log the thickness zatesa, named an edging is measured. The further marking is shown in drawing. Thus an end face and vertical strony the ends share risks on 8 equal parts, through the risks, to in parallel cut off parties, lines are spent, edges are marked, for example, by letters AB, VG, DE, ZHZ. On edge AB from above and from below it is postponed by its eighth part, on VG and DE on two eighth, ZHZ three eighth. "Paw" turns out after connection of the received points by straight lines and stesyvanija superfluous wood. Closely to an internal corner of "paw" it is possible to put a secret or radical thorn that logs on corners did not move. Its sizes make third of the sizes of "paw". The marking and cutting down of grooves becomes the same as and in the previous case. Consider that at cabin "in a paw" corners of walls are more strongly blown, on them it is necessary to put a layer of a thermal protection and to hammer boards.

Some words about a deposit

Now about one feature rublenogo houses. If completely to adhere centuries of the developed rules srub gathers at first "nacherno", logs aim, understand and lie in a dry place or simply reliably closed for about a year or moreover. In connection with usyhaniem wood srub originally becomes approximately on 10 sm above, nests for thorns on 2 sm are deeper, than it is provided in a definitive variant.

Types of connections bruschatyh walls: – shponkoj; in – on a radical thorn; g – ` vpoldereva `; d – connection on a radical thorn of a wall with a pier; e, – the same, ` skovorodnem ` and ` poluskovorodnem ` At definitive packing on the base over a waterproofing is put the lining processed by bitumen from a board in the thickness in 5 mm, on it a layer of a tow, felt, then the first wreath keeps within. In its groove, the thermal protection is again put on it the second wreath and so on. Over door and window apertures taking into account future deposits the backlash in 5% from their height is specially left. At construction it is hammered by a thermal protection, then, through godpoltora when will stop a deposit of walls, this backlash is closed up definitively wooden bruskom. Because of deposits it is necessary to caulk twice seams between logs. The first time after erection sruba, the second too through godpoltora. Narrow both wide grooves and cracks are caulked to a miscellaneous. In the first case it becomes in the way "vrastjazhku". Locks of hemp, a tow, a felt strip are put to a crack and densely pressed into it by a special rake, a stupid chisel while all groove is not hammered. In the end the platen from a tow which not only is inserted into a groove is started, but also taken by fibres acting therefrom, and with force is driven between logs.

Wide cracks are closed up not by strips or locks, loops, sglatyvaemymi from a ball of slightly twisted cord from hemp or a tow. This way is called "vnabor". The lowermost groove on all perimetre of the house is caulked at first, then following and the last the uppermost is closed up. Separately it is impossible to caulk each wall, since it can lead to warps. The bottom edge of a joint is condensed at first top, then. In both cases at first walls are caulked outside, then from within. It is postponed in connection with osadkoj and a covering of the house boards, oshtukaturivanie it on this covering that gives not only an additional thermal protection, but also protection against a fire, or any other kind of internal furnish.

Bruschatye of a wall

Types of connections bruschatyh walls: and - connection shponkami separate bars walls from bars Gather srubom, like timbered, and. Their thickness should be not less than 12-14 sm, and it is small for our Russian conditions. Walls from a bar, as a rule, are revetted then a brick, are sheathed tesom, plastered for thermal protection improvement.

To Collect bruschatuju a wall is easier, than timbered (drawing see). An obligatory element there is a premise between bars of a lining from the same materials. For a fastening of bars are used wooden round nageli, inserted into the apertures drilled in bars so that everyone nagel connected some numbers. To have nageli it is necessary one over another, their diameter makes nearby 3 Corners see incorporate, as it is shown, on thorns in bandaging with a radical thorn or "in a half-tree", with fastening of connection vertical plug-in rejkoj.

Internal partitions incorporate to external walls on a radical thorn or "skovorodnem". "poluskovorodnem" the ends of the beams used for the device of garret and interfloor overlappings fasten in internal walls. In external walls it becomes "skovorodnem".

In addition on a theme "Р=хэ№":

Brick walls
Walls from easy monolithic concrete
Karkasno-panel board walls

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