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Finishing materials

In building are applied let out by the industry in wide assortment materials and products to internal and external furnish of buildings. Except plaster and decorative solutions and concrete, to the finishing carry tiled materials, products from a natural and artificial stone, sheet facing, film and rolled materials for furnish of walls and ceilings, coverings for floors, paints and varnishes, and also a hardware of a loop, the handle and so forth

Tiled materials can be to destination divided into three basic groups: for internal facing of walls, for external furnish of houses and for a covering of floors.

To internal facing of walls apply ceramic glazurovannye, glass and polistirolnye tiles. Ceramic glazurovannye tiles for internal facing of walls let out square, rectangular and other form. Make, except that, shaped angular and karniznye tiles. The most widespread form square in the sizes 150Х150Х (5... 6) mm. Tiles in the sizes 200Х200Х (5 are issued also... 6) and 100Х100Х (5... 6) mm. Squared shape tiles are issued by the sizes 200X150, 200ХЮО, 150X100, 150Х 75 and 150X25 mm at a thickness 6... 8 mm. They are produced from high-quality belozhgushchihsja glin, kaltsievogo sand, colour pigments and feldspar by a method of pressing with the subsequent drying, roasting at temperature 1250 "With and glazurovaniem. The back party of tiles has riflenija in height not less than 0,3 mm for the best coupling with a solution. The assortment ceramic glazurovannyh the tiles which are let out by the enterprises of the country, is wide enough. Their obverse surface can be smooth or relief, and colour scale almost unlimited. High decorative qualities the colour tile with drawing on the obverse surface, a received method of silk-screen printing differs.

Glass tiles represent the products received by pressing from glushenoj steklomassy and glass fight or made of sheet glass, covered with enamel with the subsequent thermal processing. The surface of an underside of tiles can be rough or corrugated for maintenance of coupling with a solution. Glass tiles are issued by the sizes 120X65X5, 150X150X6, 250X140X8,5 mm. Assortment of tiles the insignificant. They can be white, blue, black, is more rare than other colours. Front ceramic and glass tiles are applied to external facing of walls.

Front ceramic tiles produce in the way of moist pressing from glin without additives or with additives with the subsequent roasting. They can be smooth or with the relief surface, one or multi-colour, glazurovannymi or neglazurovannymi. Them let out square or squared. The greatest distribution was received by tiles of moist pressing in the sizes 48X48X4, 120X65X7, 150X75X7, 250Х65ХЮ, 250Х140Х 10 mm, etc. On the back party of tiles for reliable coupling with a solution are provided riflenija, cambers or grooves in a kind "lastochkinogo a tail" at length of tiles to 150, depth not less than 2 mm, and at bolshej to length not less than 3 mm. Melkorazmernye ceramic tiles are issued by the separate enterprises in the form of carpets. They are pasted on kraftbumagu by the bone or other glue providing durability of fastening of a tile to a paper.

Glass tiles for facing of facades also are issued in the form of carpets. Kovrovomozaichnye tiles have the sizes 22Х22Х 4,5 mm. Are produced from opaque (glushenogo) white or colour glass, with smooth, corrugated (matte) or a brilliant surface. Large tiles from opaque glass from black to green colours with brilliant poured impregnations on the surfaces named "marblit", are issued by the sizes up to 500Х500Х5... 1 2 mm.

Polistirolnye of a tile receive moulding under pressure upon special press automatic machines from the polystyrene painted by mineral pigments. The back party of tiles has a side in width 6... 8 mm and the relief invoice that provides reliable gluing to a revetted surface. Tiles produce square in the sizes 10ОХ10ОХ 1,25, 150Х 150Х 1,35 mm and squared (frizovye) in the sizes 100X20X1,25, 150X20X1,35 and 150X50X1,35 mm.

The special ceramic tiles are applied To the device of floors in premises with damp processes, different by high density and the big resistance to istiraniju. As raw materials for manufacturing of such tiles serve refractory and refractory clay with the additive kaolina, quartz sand and dyes. Tiles for floors produce a method of pressing of the various form square, rectangular, triangular, six or octahedral; their halves for pattern drawing up are used also. The sizes, mm: 150Х X150X13, 100ХЮОХ10, 80Х80ХЮ, 50Х50ХЮ, 150X74X13, etc. Tiles can be with a smooth or relief obverse surface, one-colour (natural colour of clay or painted), multi-colour or figured. Their back party has riflenie that obespe chivaet its reliable coupling with a cement mortal. For a floor covering in premises with damp processes, and also on open terraces, etc. Can be used shlakositallovye plates. They possess the raised durability, chemical firmness, wear resistance. The surface shlakositalla can be raw, polished, and also covered with ceramic paints. Shlakositallovye plates are issued by the sizes from 100X100 to 500X500 mm and more. Their thickness from 6 to 25 mm. Except a covering for floors, such plates are applied also to facing of socles and walls.

Products from a natural and artificial stone.

Plates from a natural stone receive from rocks granitov, marble, limestones, tufov and others a cutting of blocks or cutting out is direct from files with the subsequent polishing, polishing or other processing. Plates are made in the width 150... 1200 mm, length not less than width, but no more than 1500 and thickness 10. 30 mm. Such strips and draughts in width 20 are produced... 150 mm of various length from a waste at a scrap of large plates.

Plates from a granite and marble are not applied to furnish of an individual apartment house. For facing of socles, walls, etc. Production wastes scraps of plates of the wrong form can be used only. Plates from limestone and a tufa are used for external furnish of houses in those areas where this stone is a local material.

Plates from an artificial stone produce from concrete, plaster, steklotsementa. Facing plates from decorative concrete receive from grey or colour cements and decorative napolnitelja. They can have an impressive or relief obverse surface. An impressive obverse surface receive a filler exposure, powder svezheulozhennogo concrete a stone crumb, machining of a surface, etc. the Relief obverse surface receive formation of plates on relief matrixes. The sizes of plates 200Х200Х 30, 400X100X40 mm, etc.

Facing plates can be made of decorative concrete most. For this purpose it is necessary to make wooden or metal folding forms in which it is possible to receive at once some plates. Before packing of concrete the form is necessary for processing fatty greasing. At filling of its form it is necessary to condense well. For reception of relief plates in the form stack a matrix from rubber, a tree, metal, etc. With a necessary relief. An impressive surface receive by means of powder of decorative stones of the identical form on svezheulozhennyj concrete. If napolnitelem the concrete mix was served by a white or colour marble crumb it it is possible to bare, washout by the sprayed water an obverse layer svezheulozhennogo concrete, having put thus the form in inclined position (at an angle 45 °). An obverse surface of concrete plates process metal brushes through 3... 4 days after concrete packing. Concrete facing plates are used for furnish of socles, a platform at an input, etc.

Plaster decorative plates make from plaster knitting various kinds. They can be reinforced fiber glass, steklosetkoj. A wire and other materials. The obverse surface of such plates, as well as concrete, can be smooth or relief. The sizes, mm: 300X300X20, 500X500X30 and 600X600X50. Plates apply, as a rule, to internal furnish of buildings of public appointment. However in certain cases they can be used for furnish of one of walls of the general room. Plaster plates are simple for making and in house conditions on the technology similar to manufacturing techniques of concrete plates. It is possible to prepare a plaster solution without napolnitelja (from plaster and water) or with napolnitelem (for example, with sawdust).

Sheet materials.

The Industry lets out wide assortment of sheet materials, many of which arrive in shops for sale to individual builders. Them concern dry plaster plaster, gipsokartonnye sheets, drevesnostruzhechnye and wood-fiber plates, bumazhnosloistyj plastic, decorative plywood.

Dry plaster plaster consists of the core made of building plaster with additives, pasted over with a cardboard. Sheets are issued by the sizes, mm: in the length 2500; 2700; 2900; 3000 and 3300, width 1200 and 1 300, thickness 10и 12. They are applied to internal facing of walls and ceilings.

Gilsokartonnye sheets a facing material on the basis of plaster which is called also as the strengthened dry plaster plaster. Unlike usual dry plaster, in the gypsum cardboard core, except plaster, are entered also fibrous napolnitel and penoobrazovatel that provides increase of its durability and weight reduction.
In a wall revetted with gypsum cardboard, it is possible to hammer in nails, krepit to it pictures, fixtures, etc. Sheets are issued by length 2500... 4800, width 600 and 1200, thickness 8; 10; 12; 14; 16; 18; 20 and 25 mm. They are intended also for furnish of walls, ceilings and the device of modular partitions.

Drevesnostruzhechnye of a plate (DSP) are produced by a method of hot pressing of flat, thin particles of the wood mixed with the synthetic binding. In some fizikomehanicheskim to properties DSP surpass natural wood: they inflate from a moisture, less gorjuchi less, are not jarred on, bioracks. Are issued by length 2440; 2750; 3500; 3500; 3660 and 5500, width 1200; 1500; 1750; 1830 and 2440, thickness 10... 25 mm. Are applied to manufacturing of the built in and stationary furniture, the device of floors and dr,

Wood-fiber plates (DVP) receive a method of hot pressing of wood fibrous weight of a special grinding with the additive fenolnoformaldegidnyh or other pitches. Depending on density them subdivide on soft (semifirm (AT), firm () and superfirm (ST).

Finishing DVP let out the painted enamels on the basis of synthetic pitches with a covering the polyvinylchloride film, laminated (with bumazhnosmoljanym a covering). Soft DVP let out in the length 3000; 2700; 2500; 1800; 1600 and 1200, width 1700 and 1220, thickness 8; 12; 16 and 25 mm. Semifirm, firm and superfirm plates produce in the length 5500; 3600; 3000; 2700; 2500; 2350; 2050 and 1200, width 2140; 1830; 1700 and 1220, thickness 6; 8 and 12 mm (semifirm), and also 2,5; 3,2; 4; 5 and 6 mm (firm and superfirm).

Bumazhnosloistyj of plastic arts is made by pressing of special kinds of the paper impregnated with the synthetic thermojet binding. It is issued decorative, monophonic or with printing drawing. The sizes of plastic, mm: length 400... 30 000, width 400... 1600, a thickness 1; 1,3; 1,6; 2; 2,5 mm. It is used for internal facing of walls, furniture, doors.

Decorative plywood is produced from lushchenogo an interline interval, synthetic pitches, a decorative paper. It can have one or a bilateral, glossy or semimatte surface. The sizes, mm: length 1220... 2440, width 725., 1525, a thickness 3... 12. It is applied to facing of walls of premises.

Film and rolled materials for furnish of walls and ceilings.

Wall-paper, polymeric films concern film and rolled materials on paper and fabric bases, bezosnovnye polymeric films, linkrust, vinisten, and also the made foam polymeric material penoplen.

Wall-paper produces from special obojnoj papers on which put the water suspensions of paints forming a background, and printing drawing. The assortment of wall-paper is rather various: imprinted, goffered, with the relief press on an one-colour or multi-colour background. Many kinds of wall-paper maintain 7... 8кратную processing by warm water with application of washing-up liquids. Moisture resistant printing wall-paper concerns them with high durability of a paint layer on istiraemost. Moisture resistant wall-paper with a film covering, in turn, maintains repeated damp processing. Wall-paper is issued in rolls in width 500; 600 and 750 mm. The length of a piece a roll can be 7; 10,5; 12 and 16 m.

Films on a paper basis produce an isocaptivity drawing of polyvinylchloride paste on a paper basis with the subsequent stamping. An isocaptivity 600 mm in rolls in length let out in the width than 10 m. of the Film on a fabric basis viniliskozhi represent the rolled finishing material produced by drawing of a polyvinylchloride covering with napolniteljami and softeners on a cotton fabric not less. They are issued by width 700... 1050 mm in rolls length of a piece in which from 20 to 40 m. on a fabric basis it is possible to carry To films also teksoplen the new material representing a fabric, painted in a cloth or stuffed, impregnated with special structure. The non-drying glutinous layer protected by an antiadhesive paper is put on a fabric underside. Teksoplen is issued in rolls in length of 6 and 12 m, width 700... 950 mm. Films on paper and fabric bases are moisture resistant, it is possible to wash them with warm water and soap by means of a sponge.

Bezosnovnye polymeric films are known as samoklejushchiesja. The industry lets out two principal views of such films: PDO and ПДСО1 2. Bezosnovnye decorative films receive from polyvinylchloride weight which in special cars is passed between two shaft, with the subsequent drawing of drawing by way of an intaglio printing. The stone, a fabric and other materials are issued with the drawings simulating valuable breeds of wood. Films PDO are issued without a gluing layer. They are necessary for pasting by means of special glues poliizobutilenovogo, perhlorvinilovogo or rubber. Films ПДСО12 are produced with a glutinous layer on an underside which is closed silikonizirovannoj by a paper. Films are issued by width 450; 900 or 1600 mm. The length of a piece rolls can be from 1 5 to 50 m.

Linkrust the rolled material consisting of a dense paper, the plastic covered with a layer with napolniteljami. Is issued in rolls in length of 12 m, width 500; 600 and 750 mm. A thickness from 0,6 to 1,2 mm. Linkrust is issued various relief drawings and colours.

Vinisten the polyvinylchloride finishing material produced prodavlivaniem of polyvinylchloride weight between two shaft with drawing of relief or printing drawing (valtsovokalandrovym in the way). Width of a material not less than 1300, a thickness of 2 mm. The length of a roll not less than 6 m. the Obverse surface has the drawing simulating valuable breeds of wood more often.

Penoplen the two-layer material received by drawing of polyvinylchloride paste on a paper or fabric basis with the subsequent foaming and heat treatment. The Width penoplena 100 is issued in rolls in length to 20 m... 110 sm, a thickness 0,7... 5 mm.

Penoplen is issued different colours with an imprinted obverse surface in the form of rectangular squares, polygons of the wrong form, etc.

Materials for a covering of floors.

Except ceramic and shlakositallovyh tiles, and also plates from the artificial and natural stone, floors used for a covering in premises with damp processes, in premises the piece parquet, parquet boards, parquet boards, boards, polyvinylchloride and alkidnyj linoleumy, polyvinylchloride tiles, and also synthetic carpet coverings is applied.

The Piece parquet is produced from wood of firm breeds in the thickness of 16 mm (from coniferous breeds of 19 mm). Length parquet klepok 1 50... 500, width 35... 90 mm. Klepki a piece parquet happen to grooves, with a fold, with a groove and a crest, with a slanting edge. Parquet boards consist from stroganyh reek or DSP as the basis and the top obverse covering from parquet klepok. Length of boards 1200; 1800; 2400 and 3000 mm. The piece parquet is applied to an obverse layer in the thickness 6... 8 mm depending on breed of wood and width 20... 45 mm. Details of the basis and an obverse layer stick together with waterproof synthetic glues. On edges grooves and crests are provided. The obverse surface is ground and becomes covered by a parquet varnish. Parquet boards also consist of the basis and an obverse covering from parquet klepok. For the basis use boards in the sizes 400X400 and 800X800 the mm executed from reek or DSP, In edges of boards grooves for connection by their laths are provided.

Polyvinylchloride linoleum has a number of versions bezosnovnyj, on a fabric basis, with the made foam layer on teplozvukoizoljatsionnoj to a basis. Polyvinylchloride it is a lot of and single-layered linoleum without an underlying cause is produced kalandrovym, ekstruzionnym or valtsovym in the way from polyvinylchloride, softeners, napolnitelej, pigments and various additives. Than 12 m, width 1200 are issued in rolls in length of a panel not less... 1400, thickness of 1,5 and 1,8 mm.

Linoleum with the made foam layer represents the rolled material consisting of a skeleton (stekloholst, an asbestine fabric, etc.) which is covered by one or several layers of the made foam polyvinylchloride. The printing multi-colour drawing protected by a transparent polyvinylchloride layer is put on an obverse surface of linoleum. Than 12 m, width 1350 are issued in rolls in length of a panel not less... 2000, thickness of 1,8 and 3,5 mm.

Linoleum on fabric and teplozvukoizolirujushchej to an underlying cause consists of two layers: top and bottom. The top layer a polyvinylchloride film with printing drawing, bottom a rough fabric or nonwoven igloprobivnoj teplozvukoizoljatsionnyj a material. The length and width the same, as at bezosnovnogo linoleum, makes a thickness 3,6 mm.

Alkidnyj receive linoleum drawing on a cordlike basis of plastic into which structure enter gliftalevaja pitch, vegetable oils and napolnitel wood or a pith flour. The obverse surface can be one-colour or with colour drawing. Length of a roll to 3000, width 1800... 2000, a thickness 2,5; 3,4 and 5 mm.

Polyvinylchloride tiles make from the same materials, as polyvinylchloride linoleum, cutting out by a metal stamp from material panels. They have the square form, the sizes 300X300 mm at a thickness 1,5; 2 and 2,5 mm or the trapezoid form at the same thickness. Are produced one and multi-colour with a smooth or imprinted obverse surface.

Colourful coverings.

Paints prepare from a pigment binding substances and napolnitelja. Depending on binding paints subdivide on not water, water and emulsionnye. Not water, in turn, subdivide into oil and varnish (enamels) depending on the core binding.
The core binding for oil paints are drying oils or oksoli. Varnishes receive from various natural and synthetic pitches with use of organic solvents.

Binding for water paints happen a mineral or organic origin. To the mineral binding carry cement, izvest, liquid glass, to organic the substances received by processing of a waste meat and a fishing industry, produced of a flour and starch or received by chemical synthesis. Vodoemulsionnye paints prepare on a basis lateksnogo glue, for example PVAE. Paints of various structures and appointments are issued by the industry and go on sale. Them concern, basically, not water and vodoemulsionnye coverings. Water paints prepare on a place more often.

That it is good to be guided in assortment of paints and varnishes of factory manufacturing, it is necessary to understand their marks. Appointment of paints and their basic properties are specified on labels of container and in engineering specifications. Marks consist of letters and figures. In a designation of a paint and varnish material are specified its name (a first coat, shpatlevka, a paint), core type plenkoobrazovatelja, material appointment (for paints the digital designation is accepted: 1... 9, for first coats About, for shpatlevok 00), a serial number, appropriated to a paint and varnish material, and its colour. Specific properties which the material possesses, designate letters (In water diluted, P powder, E emulsionnaja). The core type plenkoobrazovatelja is designated usually by two initial letters of its name, for example the EXPERT alkidnoakrilovye paints, BT bitumen, GF gliftalevye, KF kanifolnye, TO silicon organic, MA oil, ML melaminovye, NTS nitrocellulose, PF pentaftalevye, HV perhlorvinilovye, VA polivinilatsetatnye, FL phenolic, EP epoksidnye, NP petropolymeric, etc. material Appointment (a digital designation) is deciphered as follows: first coats and oil pastes 0, shpatlevochnye putties 00, weatherproof paints 1, paints for internal works 2, the waterproof paints 4 special 5, maslobenzostojkie 6, chemically proof 7, heat-resistant 8, elektroizoljatsionnye 9. After a serial number, appropriated to a material, addition of the alphabetic index characterising some features of a material is supposed also. For example: gs hot, hs cold drying, pm semimatte, etc.

Materials for preparation of paints in the course of work.

For preparation of paints it is necessary to have binding, pigments, napolniteli and other auxiliary materials. To mineral binding for water paints concern cement, izvest and liquid glass. Liquid glass (a mix of silicate of sodium and silicate kalija) is applied to manufacturing of silicate paints. At painting works it is used kalievoe liquid glass.

Organic binding substances or glues happen a vegetative, animal origin or synthetic, Vegetative glue prepares from a flour or starch. For this purpose wheaten, rye, barley, corn and other flour can be used. Starch is less preferable in connection with smaller gluing ability. Paste turns out by zavarivanija torments (starch) hot water. As vegetative glue can be used also dekstrin, received by processing of potato or corn starch by acids at heating to 150... 200 °s. Glue of an animal origin depending on initial raw materials subdivide on bone, mezdrovyj and fish. Bone and mezdrovyj glues go on sale in the form of tiles, granules, cheshuek or studnja (glue gallerta). Colour of glues from yellow to the brown. Fish glue in comparison with bone and mezdrovym possesses bolshej gluing ability, is issued in the form of a powder or plates svetlokremovogo colours. Glues of an animal origin are used for preparation of painting structures. Synthetic glues concern KMTS (karboksimetiltselljuloza) and PVA (polivinilatsetatnaja emulsija). KMTS a product of chemical processing of wood cellulose. On appearance it reminds a small fibrous shaving of white or cream colour. In sale arrives in packages or kulkah. For reception of its gluing structure fill in with water on 24 ch. Before reception of homogeneous jellylike weight. PVA receive on a basis polivinilatsetatnoj pitches in a kind spirtovovodnogo a solution or in the form of diluted with water emulsii. Is on sale in various ware from polymeric materials. Synthetic glues are applied to preparation of painting structures, and also shpatlevok.

For razbavlenija not water paints in the conditions of a building site drying oils natural, condensed and synthetic more often are used. Natural receive from the vegetable oils digested at 260... 280 °s with katalizatoramisikkativami, Condensed, depending on a way of reception, subdivide on polimerizovannye and oksidirovannye (oksoli). Such drying oils contain to 50% of flying solvent.

Synthetic drying oils receive from various film-forming materials chemical synthesis. As raw materials for their manufacturing mineral oil, slate oil serve, etc. such drying oils concern etinol, naftenol, slate drying oil, etc. Drying oils are used for preparation and razbavlenija oil paints, manufacture of first coats, shpatlevok, prooliflivanija a tree, plaster, metal details and other surfaces. Completely they dry up for 24 ch. It is necessary to give preference natural oh to drying oil which is characterised bolshej by durability and durability.

Pigments colour poroshkoobraznye materials of a mineral or organic origin. They are not dissolved in water, drying oil, glues, etc., and are in them in a suspension. Names of pigments are usually defined by a kind of initial raw materials for their reception that in the absence of sufficient experience complicates their choice for reception of the necessary colour auxiliary materials are necessary for preparation various painting, shpatlevochnyh and ogruntovochnyh structures. To them carry copper kuporos, soap, hydrochloric acid, kausticheskuju soda, alum, table salt and so forth, and also solvents.

Copper kuporos it is applied to ground preparation under glutinous colouring. For this purpose it is possible to use also kuporos the iron. Soap economic is used as the additive in first coats and shpatlevki, and also for tool washing. Hydrochloric acid apply to removal of an old paint and a rust, and kausticheskuju soda for removal of old oil paints and varnish coverings.

Alum (aluminium technical) applies to preparation shpatlevok and first coats under water paints, and also in limy kolerah. Table salt is necessary for preparation of limy colourful structures, wax or paraffin for preparation matte kolerov.

Except listed above materials at carrying out of painting works the grinding paper and pumice for zachistki proshpaklevannyh surfaces are necessary also.

At work with paints almost always there is a necessity to dilute them to the necessary consistence. For this purpose thinners (drying oils, varnishes, oksoli) and solvents are used. Unlike thinners which dilute a paint, forming a uniform film, solvents are dissolved in varnishes and paints, and then disappear, weakening in kakojto to a measure a colourful covering. To them carry turpentine, uajtspirit or the gasoline, used for razbavlenija oil colourful structures, butilatsetat and the acetone, applied to dissolution of nitropaints, spirit for dissolution and preparation of varnishes.a also special solvents for synthetic paints and the enamels, going on sale in a kind ready to application. The industry lets out more than 50 structures of complex solvents, suitable paints for all most widespread kinds. Names of dissolved materials are resulted on labels of solvents,

the Hardware.

The loops locking and auxiliary devices, produced of a steel, polymers, aluminium alloys are issued by the Industry in wide assortment of the handle, a tree and other materials of Ruchkiskoby are produced symmetric on pads. Ruchkiknopki there can be deaf persons or falevymi on pads, handles falevye with Gobraznymi handles on laths or on pads. Ruchkiknopki and handles falevye are produced also with dead locks and latches.

Loops are issued by waybills and vreznymi. The design of loops of all types provides possibility of removal of shutters, transoms of windows, cloths of doors, etc., without unscrewing of loops.

locking devices it is various kinds of locks vreznye, waybills, and also latches door and window, zavertki for windows and doors, vreznye latches, unprofitable latches and couplers. Vreznye and unprofitable locks, and also latches are issued by the bilateral. Locks cylinder with the unilateral cylinder open from the inside a constant key with rukojatkojbarashkom; unprofitable cylinder locks, besides, have the safety lock fixing zasovzashchelku in extreme positions. Boxes vreznyh and unprofitable locks of all types have demountable covers.

To auxiliary devices carry zakryvateli doors, clamps, door eyes and chains, a window and door emphasis, and also squares and nageli.

All products, as a rule, go on sale completely. Complete sets of devices include screws, screws and pins, and also auxiliary details (if it is necessary) for service of devices in the course of their operation. Devices of the difficult device, besides, are supplied with the instructions containing the short description of their designs, ways of installation and service regulations.

In addition on a theme "Building ьр=хЁшры№":

Building materials
Constructional materials
the Materials used at drawing up of solutions
Roofing materials
Materials from wood
Teploizoljatsionnye materials and products

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